2018 Ydt İngilizce Online Alıştırma

2018 Ydt İngilizce Online Alıştırma

2018 Ydt İngilizce Soruları ve Cevapları

2018 Ydt İngilizce Soruları

2018 Ydt İngilizce Online Alıştırma

1. United Nations Peacekeeping emerged out of World War II to help warring countries or communities to create the —- for world peace.
a) inventions
b) predictions
c) interventions
d) accomplishments
e) conditions

2. Invented by the Chinese in the 9th century, gunpowder rapidly became a —- factor in battle.
a) crucial
b) complicating
c) provable
d) virtual
e) limiting

3. It is difficult to say —- when people first started to make rope because very few early examples have survived until today.
a) eventually
b) importantly
c) exactly
d) consistently
e) partially

4. The continents are the major land masses of the Earth and —- around 29 per cent of the planet’s surface.
a) threaten
b) occupy
c) maintain
d) initiate
e) provide

5. The Hanseatic League, a confederation of North German cities founded in the late 1200’s, —- special areas in cities across north Europe and controlled most trading routes.
a) set up
b) put aside
c) turned down
d) came out
e) kept off

6. Although simple games —- available on mainframe computers in the years after the Second World War their widespread adoption —- until the emergence of personal computers.
a) were going to be / could wait
b) had been / should have waited
c) were / had to wait
d) used to be / would have waited
e) would have been / must have waited

7. The rapid disappearance of Arctic ice —- the use of an undersea Internet cable, —- a shorter path between Europe and Asia.
a) can enable / to be created
b) must enable / being created
c) would enable / to have created
d) may enable / creating
e) should enable / to be creating

8. The first woman to cycle around the world was the Latvian-American Annie Kopchovsky who —- financial sponsorship in return for —- an advertised placard on her bike.
a) had received / to be hung
b) was receiving / to hang
c) has been receiving / being hung
d) received / hanging
e) would receive / having hung

9. Research has shown that children —- secure attachments to parents develop more positive relationships with teachers and friends —- their family.
a) with / beyond
b) in / about
c) of / towards
d) under / over
e) on / across

10. Research involving animals is controversial, but when conducted —- ethical guidelines, it yields significant benefits —- humans.
a) in / from
b) 

11. At the start of the 20th century, nine out of ten people lived in rural areas where they worked on the land, —- approximately half of the world’s population today lives in the city.
a) as
b) whereas
c) hence
d) so
e) whether

12. An important task of childhood is learning how to bring emotions under reasonable control —- children who cannot manage their emotions are likely to experience problems with other people.
a) once
b) since
c) even if
d) in case
e) unless

13. Not —- speaker can create great literature, but —- who knows a language can create and understand new sentences.
a) one / everybody
b) every / anybody
c) each / nobody
d) another / someone
e) any / no one

14. Given that it is highly likely that further reservoirs exist, the interior of our planet could contain at least six times —- much water —- all the world’s oceans do.
a) as / as
b) so / that
c) whether / or
d) both / and
e) either / or

15. The panda has become an international symbol for conservation since 1990, winning the public’s affection —- their distinctive black and white markings and clumsy behaviour.
a) in spite of
b) on behalf of
c) thanks to
d) in contrast to
e) except for

16. The nervous system is the most complex of all the body's systems. It is a detailed network of sensory cells, originating in the brain and spinal cord that transmits signals (16)—- the body. It uses a caravan of chemical messengers to make sense of this marvelous complex that we (17)—- as touch, taste, smell, hearing, and vision. In fact, at this precise moment, (18)—- an extraordinary relationship between our eyes and our brain, we are able to see and understand what we are reading. Modern cameras (19)—- on the same basic principles as our eye. (20)—-, they have never been able to equal the visual power of the eye. The focus and the automatic aperture of the human eye are perfect.
a) throughout
b) with
c) on
d) against
e) by

17. The nervous system is the most complex of all the body's systems. It is a detailed network of sensory cells, originating in the brain and spinal cord that transmits signals (16)—- the body. It uses a caravan of chemical messengers to make sense of this marvelous complex that we (17)—- as touch, taste, smell, hearing, and vision. In fact, at this precise moment, (18)—- an extraordinary relationship between our eyes and our brain, we are able to see and understand what we are reading. Modern cameras (19)—- on the same basic principles as our eye. (20)—-, they have never been able to equal the visual power of the eye. The focus and the automatic aperture of the human eye are perfect.
a) visualise
b) classify
c) notice
d) duplicate
e) integrate

18. The nervous system is the most complex of all the body's systems. It is a detailed network of sensory cells, originating in the brain and spinal cord that transmits signals (16)—- the body. It uses a caravan of chemical messengers to make sense of this marvelous complex that we (17)—- as touch, taste, smell, hearing, and vision. In fact, at this precise moment, (18)—- an extraordinary relationship between our eyes and our brain, we are able to see and understand what we are reading. Modern cameras (19)—- on the same basic principles as our eye. (20)—-, they have never been able to equal the visual power of the eye. The focus and the automatic aperture of the human eye are perfect.
a) in addition to
b) instead of
c) despite
d) similar to
e) because of

19. The nervous system is the most complex of all the body's systems. It is a detailed network of sensory cells, originating in the brain and spinal cord that transmits signals (16)—- the body. It uses a caravan of chemical messengers to make sense of this marvelous complex that we (17)—- as touch, taste, smell, hearing, and vision. In fact, at this precise moment, (18)—- an extraordinary relationship between our eyes and our brain, we are able to see and understand what we are reading. Modern cameras (19)—- on the same basic principles as our eye. (20)—-, they have never been able to equal the visual power of the eye. The focus and the automatic aperture of the human eye are perfect.
a) will be designed
b) had been designed
c) are designed
d) will have been designed
e) were being designed

20. The nervous system is the most complex of all the body's systems. It is a detailed network of sensory cells, originating in the brain and spinal cord that transmits signals (16)—- the body. It uses a caravan of chemical messengers to make sense of this marvelous complex that we (17)—- as touch, taste, smell, hearing, and vision. In fact, at this precise moment, (18)—- an extraordinary relationship between our eyes and our brain, we are able to see and understand what we are reading. Modern cameras (19)—- on the same basic principles as our eye. (20)—-, they have never been able to equal the visual power of the eye. The focus and the automatic aperture of the human eye are perfect.
a) However
b) Instead
c) For instance
d) Thus
e) Furthermore

21. The body faces many dangers such as physical damage and infectious diseases —-.
a) once the immune system releases chemicals that trigger defence
b) whenever it receives help from disease-fighting bacteria
c) if it is strong enough to fight infection and damage
d) but it has many different systems and barriers to defend itself
e) even though these stem from certain environmental factors

22. Although whales and dolphins spend their lives in water, —-.
a) nearly all the members are meat-eaters
b) they all share certain features such as sharp teeth
c) they give birth to their babies, just like other mammals
d) most are intelligent animals and ruthless killers
e) they have to come to the surface to breathe air

23. Despite being the best thing he had written up to that time, when Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote the first Sherlock Holmes story, —-.
a) it soon became a best-seller
b) much was known about the main character
c) he immediately earned a great amount of money
d) the plot of the story was loved by the public
e) very few publishers were interested

24. Though an increasingly small per cent of the population is engaged in agriculture in France, —-.
a) the country has a strong economy, based on commerce and industry
b) the climate is predominately Mediterranean in the south and southeast
c) the country’s plains are mostly located in the Paris Basin to the north
d) the country is one of the most important exporters of food in the world
e) much of its population is concentrated in the north and southeast

25. Many lakes in the world seem to be warming, shrinking and even disappearing —-.
a) despite the ever-rising water extraction and climate change in some regions
b) rather than having their water withdrawn to irrigate surrounding agricultural fields
c) in terms of their vulnerability to becoming shallow and having skyrocketing salt levels
d) in contrast with groundwater salinisation, making the land less appropriate for agriculture
e) as a consequence of unsustainable water use and climate change

26. We spend a notable portion of our lives asleep, —-.
a) yet most of us understand very little about sleep and insomnia
b) but we should learn about what happens to our bodies while we sleep
c) so investigating what happens during sleep seems to be ignored
d) whereas learning about sleep makes the experience less mysterious
e) although we feel closer to finding a solution to the problem of insomnia

27. As well as getting rid of waste chemicals, —-.
a) the urinary system includes two kidneys and various tubes for carrying urine
b) the urinary system helps us maintain a healthy level of water in the body
c) urine has a yellow colour because of waste chemicals produced in the body
d) urine can be studied by doctors while diagnosing certain diseases
e) the urinary system is known as an internal cleaning service as it removes toxic wastes

28. Tear production slows as people get older —-.
a) because the surface of the eye is covered in a thin film of fluid to make it smooth
b) even if tears cannot spread fast enough by themselves to keep up with the rate of evaporation
c) as driving and staring at a computer screen are among the factors that reduce the blink rate
d) since the different layers of the eye keep it nice and moist, which is necessary for tear production
e) but it can also be reduced by damage to the corneal nerves from contact lenses or eye surgery

29. Consumers purchase products and services to experience certain emotional states or achieve emotional goals in a process called emotional arousal. Emotions can create a feeling of pleasure or  satisfaction, but they can also give the consumer the perception that their purchase will help them avoid a feeling of displeasure. No matter what the purchase is, consumers must somehow associate a positive emotional connection between a product and themselves. Positive emotions can include the fulfillment of a desire or the feelings of safety and protection.
Consumers also have both unexpressed and expressed emotions. It is important to understand the difference between these emotions because if a consumer is purchasing but is not expressing any emotion toward a product, you may need to ask more questions in order to reach the customer on a deeper level. Doing so helps the consumers feel that they are somehow linked to your product and that it produces a favorable image of them. This reaction evokes consumer identification with your product and motivates them to buy – and keep buying – your product.
How does buying something affect consumers’ emotions?
a) It gives consumers a feeling of achievement.
b) It causes consumers to have damaging thoughts.
c) It influences every decision consumers make before purchasing.
d) It leads to a condition of discomfort and misery.
e) It results in a feeling of regret for purchasing too much.

30. Consumers purchase products and services to experience certain emotional states or achieve emotional goals in a process called emotional arousal. Emotions can create a feeling of pleasure or  satisfaction, but they can also give the consumer the perception that their purchase will help them avoid a feeling of displeasure. No matter what the purchase is, consumers must somehow associate a positive emotional connection between a product and themselves. Positive emotions can include the fulfillment of a desire or the feelings of safety and protection.
Consumers also have both unexpressed and expressed emotions. It is important to understand the difference between these emotions because if a consumer is purchasing but is not expressing any emotion toward a product, you may need to ask more questions in order to reach the customer on a deeper level. Doing so helps the consumers feel that they are somehow linked to your product and that it produces a favorable image of them. This reaction evokes consumer identification with your product and motivates them to buy – and keep buying – your product.
 It is important to comprehend the difference between unexpressed and expressed emotions because —-.
a) emotions are important in understanding why consumers buy certain products
b) these expressions are evidence of how consumers can reach emotional goals
c) when consumers identify themselves with a particular product, they keep buying it
d) consumers need to get rid of any uncomfortable and unsafe feelings
e) consumers make decisions based on perceptions rather than reality

31. Consumers purchase products and services to experience certain emotional states or achieve emotional goals in a process called emotional arousal. Emotions can create a feeling of pleasure or  satisfaction, but they can also give the consumer the perception that their purchase will help them avoid a feeling of displeasure. No matter what the purchase is, consumers must somehow associate a positive emotional connection between a product and themselves. Positive emotions can include the fulfillment of a desire or the feelings of safety and protection.
Consumers also have both unexpressed and expressed emotions. It is important to understand the difference between these emotions because if a consumer is purchasing but is not expressing any emotion toward a product, you may need to ask more questions in order to reach the customer on a deeper level. Doing so helps the consumers feel that they are somehow linked to your product and that it produces a favorable image of them. This reaction evokes consumer identification with your product and motivates them to buy – and keep buying – your product.
Which of the following could be the main idea of this passage?
a) It is important to evaluate the emotional needs of customers.
b) Consumers satisfy all of their needs by purchasing products.
c) The motivational process begins with the need for a certain product.
d) Consumers are triggered by some specific emotions when buying a product.
e) It is unclear whether emotions truly have an impact on consumer behaviour.

32. A new helmet display promises to give bikers eyes in  the back of their heads. The designer of the equipment states that the inherent problem with motorcycles is that the mirrors reflect a very small image and, because of the position of the mirrors, motorcyclists mostly just see their elbows. A small backlit display screen is added onto motorcycle helmets with an adjustable arm which lets riders place it just below or above their eye, in their peripheral vision. A rear-facing camera attached to the back of the bike streams live video via Wi-Fi to the helmet-mounted receiver. The images are processed and stabilised before they reach the display to accommodate for the bike’s movements. One glance at the display gives the rider a wide view of the road behind them. Although the screen is just next to the user’s face, optics fool the eye into focusing at a more comfortable distance of around 3 metres. However, it is still suggested that users should check their mirrors and do the lifesaver check, turning their heads to check blind spots.
What is the problem regarding the motorcyclists’ vision?
a) It is difficult for bikers to get a broad view of the road behind them using only their mirrors.
b) Fatal accidents cannot be prevented because of the limited use of mirrors.
c) Motorcyclists have difficulty adjusting mirrors to get images from the sides of the bike.
d) The body’s position on the motorcycle does not allow the biker to see what is happening around him.
e) Mirror positions constantly need to be changed to follow traffic flow.

33. A new helmet display promises to give bikers eyes in  the back of their heads. The designer of the equipment states that the inherent problem with motorcycles is that the mirrors reflect a very small image and, because of the position of the mirrors, motorcyclists mostly just see their elbows. A small backlit display screen is added onto motorcycle helmets with an adjustable arm which lets riders place it just below or above their eye, in their peripheral vision. A rear-facing camera attached to the back of the bike streams live video via Wi-Fi to the helmet-mounted receiver. The images are processed and stabilised before they reach the display to accommodate for the bike’s movements. One glance at the display gives the rider a wide view of the road behind them. Although the screen is just next to the user’s face, optics fool the eye into focusing at a more comfortable distance of around 3 metres. However, it is still suggested that users should check their mirrors and do the lifesaver check, turning their heads to check blind spots.
It is understood from the passage that the helmet display —-.
a) records the motorcycle’s movements
b) is placed directly below or above the mirror on the front of the bike
c) views peripheral images and movements, though there is a delay in transmission
d) shows images of what is happening behind the motorcycle
e) fools motorcyclists’ eyes into thinking things are more than 3 metres behind them

34. A new helmet display promises to give bikers eyes in  the back of their heads. The designer of the equipment states that the inherent problem with motorcycles is that the mirrors reflect a very small image and, because of the position of the mirrors, motorcyclists mostly just see their elbows. A small backlit display screen is added onto motorcycle helmets with an adjustable arm which lets riders place it just below or above their eye, in their peripheral vision. A rear-facing camera attached to the back of the bike streams live video via Wi-Fi to the helmet-mounted receiver. The images are processed and stabilised before they reach the display to accommodate for the bike’s movements. One glance at the display gives the rider a wide view of the road behind them. Although the screen is just next to the user’s face, optics fool the eye into focusing at a more comfortable distance of around 3 metres. However, it is still suggested that users should check their mirrors and do the lifesaver check, turning their heads to check blind spots.
Which of the following could be the best title for the passage?
a) New Helmet Technology for Rear Vision
b) Helmet Displays Replace Mirrors
c) Image Processing through Helmet Displays
d) Mirrors versus Helmet Displays
e) Lifesaver Check of a Motorcyclist

35. Today’s symphony orchestra has its roots in 17th century bands. The earliest orchestras, usually attached to a church, or a theatre, varied in structure from place to place. They were often directed from the keyboard or by the principal violinist. During the 18th century, as popular works such as those by Haydn and Mozart began to be played all over Europe, some standardization of the orchestra became necessary. A string section comprising violins, violas, cellos, and double basses was usually joined by two horns, two flutes, two trumpets, and timpani. The clarinet became a standard member of the orchestra only at the end of the 18th century. The 19th century saw the rise of public concerts in large halls, which necessitated louder instruments and larger orchestras. As a result, instruments changed. They were redesigned and adapted to enable them to project further. Larger and smaller versions of some instruments, such as the piccolo, cor anglais, and bass clarinet, were featured more frequently. Some new instruments were also added, with trombones and later, tubas becoming standard members of the orchestra.
According to the passage, the first orchestras —-.
a) did not all have a consistent structure
b) were able to perform only in churches and theatres
c) had almost the same structural system with each other
d) used the same instruments as modern orchestras do today
e) reached their audiences with louder instruments in larger halls

36. Today’s symphony orchestra has its roots in 17th century bands. The earliest orchestras, usually attached to a church, or a theatre, varied in structure from place to place. They were often directed from the keyboard or by the principal violinist. During the 18th century, as popular works such as those by Haydn and Mozart began to be played all over Europe, some standardization of the orchestra became necessary. A string section comprising violins, violas, cellos, and double basses was usually joined by two horns, two flutes, two trumpets, and timpani. The clarinet became a standard member of the orchestra only at the end of the 18th century. The 19th century saw the rise of public concerts in large halls, which necessitated louder instruments and larger orchestras. As a result, instruments changed. They were redesigned and adapted to enable them to project further. Larger and smaller versions of some instruments, such as the piccolo, cor anglais, and bass clarinet, were featured more frequently. Some new instruments were also added, with trombones and later, tubas becoming standard members of the orchestra.
It is pointed out in the passage that orchestras in the 19th century —-.
a) changed a lot due to the different religious and cultural demands of the leaders at that time
b) were only led by keyboards and principal violinists
c) required more members and instruments modified to project sound further
d) wanted to redesign their instruments so as to use them in small churches and theatres
e) added trombones and tubas because the variety of instruments in orchestras was limited

37. Today’s symphony orchestra has its roots in 17th century bands. The earliest orchestras, usually attached to a church, or a theatre, varied in structure from place to place. They were often directed from the keyboard or by the principal violinist. During the 18th century, as popular works such as those by Haydn and Mozart began to be played all over Europe, some standardization of the orchestra became necessary. A string section comprising violins, violas, cellos, and double basses was usually joined by two horns, two flutes, two trumpets, and timpani. The clarinet became a standard member of the orchestra only at the end of the 18th century. The 19th century saw the rise of public concerts in large halls, which necessitated louder instruments and larger orchestras. As a result, instruments changed. They were redesigned and adapted to enable them to project further. Larger and smaller versions of some instruments, such as the piccolo, cor anglais, and bass clarinet, were featured more frequently. Some new instruments were also added, with trombones and later, tubas becoming standard members of the orchestra.
What is the main purpose of the passage?
a) To show how orchestras have changed over the years in terms of their structure and instruments
b) To inform readers about the differences between the 17th and 19th century orchestras
c) To explain how classical music got to be so popular in today’s modern world
d) To inspire and encourage people to start listening to classical music
e) To give examples of the types of instruments which were changed or modified after the 19th century

38. For centuries, the world’s physicists, writers and philosophers have argued about whether time travel is possible, with most coming to the conclusion that it is never going to happen. But on a large plot of land just outside the small town of Comfort, Texas, a group of architects, engineers and scientists are building a ‘Timeship’ that they say it could transport tens of thousands of individuals to a far-distant future. Their approach does not involve the use of flux capacitors, or zooming at light-speed through black holes. Instead, the Timeship aims to store people at such low temperatures that their bodies are preserved for a future civilisation to reanimate them, a concept known as cryonics. “Just as a spaceship allows people to move through space, our Timeship will allow people to travel to another time in the future,” explains Stephen Valentine, who is the director and principal architect of the Timeship project.
According to the group of architects, engineers and scientists in Texas, —-.
a) the city is not really suitable for the ‘Timeship’ because it is such a small place
b) it will soon be possible to transport more than 10,000 people to a far-distant future
c) it is possible that the bodies of people are preserved with almost no changes
d) their ‘Timeship’ will have the capacity of at most 10,000 people
e) time travel is not likely to take place until a far-distant future

39. For centuries, the world’s physicists, writers and philosophers have argued about whether time travel is possible, with most coming to the conclusion that it is never going to happen. But on a large plot of land just outside the small town of Comfort, Texas, a group of architects, engineers and scientists are building a ‘Timeship’ that they say it could transport tens of thousands of individuals to a far-distant future. Their approach does not involve the use of flux capacitors, or zooming at light-speed through black holes. Instead, the Timeship aims to store people at such low temperatures that their bodies are preserved for a future civilisation to reanimate them, a concept known as cryonics. “Just as a spaceship allows people to move through space, our Timeship will allow people to travel to another time in the future,” explains Stephen Valentine, who is the director and principal architect of the Timeship project.
 According to the passage, the Timeship —-.
a) is designed using the latest technology in order to reach light-speed efficiently while travelling through time
b) will be able to travel through space, but will avoid black holes through the use of the most modern technology available
c) is constructed in much the same way as a spaceship, but rather than travelling through space it will simply be used to freeze people
d) will not really move, but rather will show passengers a simulation of what the far-distant future might look like
e) will house people who have been frozen until some time in the future, thus having time-travelled

40. For centuries, the world’s physicists, writers and philosophers have argued about whether time travel is possible, with most coming to the conclusion that it is never going to happen. But on a large plot of land just outside the small town of Comfort, Texas, a group of architects, engineers and scientists are building a ‘Timeship’ that they say it could transport tens of thousands of individuals to a far-distant future. Their approach does not involve the use of flux capacitors, or zooming at light-speed through black holes. Instead, the Timeship aims to store people at such low temperatures that their bodies are preserved for a future civilisation to reanimate them, a concept known as cryonics. “Just as a spaceship allows people to move through space, our Timeship will allow people to travel to another time in the future,” explains Stephen Valentine, who is the director and principal architect of the Timeship project.
 Which of the following could be the best title for the passage?
a) Why Is Time Travel Essential?
b) A Different Way to Travel Through Time
c) Faster than a Spaceship
d) How to Create a Timeship
e) Travelling to Space

41. It was a road that kicked off the pattern of destruction in the Amazon forest. During the 1970s, Brazil began building the Trans-Amazonian Highway from near the country’s easternmost point to its western border, where the state of Amazonas meets Peru. The route opened up the heart of the Amazon to settlement, causing deforestation rates to increase. During the 1990s and early 2000s, more than 25,000 square kilometres of rainforest per year were cleared out. Throughout these years, roads have provided the means to penetrate the forest and eliminate large chunks of it. In an unpublished study of the Brazilian Amazon, researcher Christopher Barber found that 95% of deforestation in the region occurs within 7 kilometres of a road. Once construction begins, road crews are quickly followed by land speculators, loggers, farmers, ranchers, gold miners and others who carve away the forest along the route. This creates great treeless expanses in the landscape, but research is now showing that the building of roads also triggers environmental changes in the remaining forest that can dry out trees, set the stage for wildfires, and weaken the ecosystem.
Which of the following can be said about the Amazon forest?
a) The state of Brazil had to build roads through it for the people who were settled in the forest.
b) Although it damaged the forest, the new highway enabled the people of Amazonas to better travel to Peru.
c) From the 1990s onwards, 25,000 square kilometres were being cut down every year to make way for the new highway.
d) The rainforest has been suffering from a pattern of destruction in a scale it had not experienced before the 1970s.
e) Deforestation has not only affected Brazil’s eastern and western borders, but it has also started to spread through other countries.

42. It was a road that kicked off the pattern of destruction in the Amazon forest. During the 1970s, Brazil began building the Trans-Amazonian Highway from near the country’s easternmost point to its western border, where the state of Amazonas meets Peru. The route opened up the heart of the Amazon to settlement, causing deforestation rates to increase. During the 1990s and early 2000s, more than 25,000 square kilometres of rainforest per year were cleared out. Throughout these years, roads have provided the means to penetrate the forest and eliminate large chunks of it. In an unpublished study of the Brazilian Amazon, researcher Christopher Barber found that 95% of deforestation in the region occurs within 7 kilometres of a road. Once construction begins, road crews are quickly followed by land speculators, loggers, farmers, ranchers, gold miners and others who carve away the forest along the route. This creates great treeless expanses in the landscape, but research is now showing that the building of roads also triggers environmental changes in the remaining forest that can dry out trees, set the stage for wildfires, and weaken the ecosystem.
Which of the following best describes the relationship between road construction and deforestation?
a) Since the road crews work with a lot of parties to carve away the forest, deforestation along the route is not affected at all.
b) According to research on the Brazilian Amazon, a very large percentage of deforestation is a direct consequence of building the Trans-Amazonian Highway.
c) The highway and its branching roads were built to provide the necessary means of penetrating the forest to erase the traces of deforestation.
d) Contrary to previous beliefs, research is now showing that road crews also set fires and dry out the trees during construction work.
e) Although trees were cut down for the highway resulting in treeless landscapes, this was limited to an area of within 7 kilometres of a road.

43. It was a road that kicked off the pattern of destruction in the Amazon forest. During the 1970s, Brazil began building the Trans-Amazonian Highway from near the country’s easternmost point to its western border, where the state of Amazonas meets Peru. The route opened up the heart of the Amazon to settlement, causing deforestation rates to increase. During the 1990s and early 2000s, more than 25,000 square kilometres of rainforest per year were cleared out. Throughout these years, roads have provided the means to penetrate the forest and eliminate large chunks of it. In an unpublished study of the Brazilian Amazon, researcher Christopher Barber found that 95% of deforestation in the region occurs within 7 kilometres of a road. Once construction begins, road crews are quickly followed by land speculators, loggers, farmers, ranchers, gold miners and others who carve away the forest along the route. This creates great treeless expanses in the landscape, but research is now showing that the building of roads also triggers environmental changes in the remaining forest that can dry out trees, set the stage for wildfires, and weaken the ecosystem.
One can conclude from the passage that the author mainly —-.
a) wants to warn the Brazillian state against the future consequences of their project of Trans-Amazonian Highway
b) tries to point that the environmental effects of building roads are confused with the ones caused by humans
c) informs the reader on the effects building a road through the forest has on the local ecosystem
d) criticises people contributing to the deforestation process with their work
e) underlines the reasons why the Brazilian Amazon suffers more than the other parts of the forest

44. James: Is it possible to cite sources from the Internet in our papers?
Vince:Well, it depends on the source you’re referring to.
James:  —-
Vince:  Of course not. We’re writing an academic paper and all the information should be reliable.

a) I see. Why don’t we go to the computer lab and check the database?
b) So are you saying that we should consult our advisors first?
c) The Internet has the necessary information. It isn’t worth going to the library, is it?
d) What do you mean by that? Can’t we cite every source we find online?
e) I didn’t get your point. Would you please be more specific?

45. Jessica:  Why do you think Galileo Galilei is accepted as one of the most important scientists?
Robert:  Because he invented the astronomical telescope and suggested the sun-centered Solar System.
Jessica:  —-
Robert:     It’s really surprising that you’re questioning it. His studies started everything about the Universe!
a) Yes, I also learnt that he used improved telescopes to identify the moons of Jupiter.
b) Doesn’t everybody know that his obsession with measurable experiments marked him as one of the founders of modern science?
c) He did but it’s unfortunate that his conflict with the Church led to the censorship of his publications.
d) I know all about this, but I just can’t understand why so many popular writers still mention him in their works.
e) Maybe you can check it online before you believe what people say about him.

46. Journalist:  Experts warn that food industries are being threatened by a growing resistance to antibiotics.
Researcher:  Yes, it's becoming more serious day by day. A UK government report states that by 2050, antimicrobial resistance will cost more money than the current size of the world's economy, leading to catastrophes in food production.
Journalist:   —-
Researcher:  For example, if you buy a farmed salmon today, chances are it will have eaten a greater weight of antibiotics during its life than its own body weight.
Journalist:  So, we can say that farming practices are perfect for boosting antimicrobial resistance.
a) We know that farmers rely heavily on antibiotics. What is the reason behind their practices?
b) What can health scientists and clinicians do to sort out the problem?
c) Can you tell us how antimicrobial resistance affects food?
d) Do you think food industries could collapse if resistance spreads?
e) What else does the report warn us about?

47. Eda:  I haven't seen you on social media for some time. Don't you use it any more?
Çiğdem:  —-
Eda:  You've done the right thing! Experts say browsing social media sites leads to depression as it triggers a feeling of envy among users.
Çiğdem:  That could be true, as well. But my reason is being too busy to use it these days, not because I'm jealous of others.
a) I'm afraid I've forgotten my password, so I can't log in these days.
b) Well, seeing how people are satisfied with their lives gets on my nerves.
c) I believe it's a waste of time and I do nothing but follow the lives of people around me.
d) I didn't expect you'd notice my absence, but don't worry I'll be back very soon.
e) I've closed my account as I've got much more important stuff to do.

48. Mert:  I ran a couple of kilometres this morning as usual, and I’ve got this awful pain in my leg.
Fatma:   —-
Mert:  No, I’ve been running in the mornings for the last three months, I haven’t taken a break.
Fatma:  Frequent runners often suffer pain in their legs, and nobody knows why. Maybe you should take it easy for a couple of days.
a) Do you stop for water breaks when you’re running?
b) Do you always suffer pain after running?
c) Do you usually run in the evenings?
d) Was it your first time running for a while?
e) Do you think it would help staying healthy?

49. Eating healthily does not mean obsessing about the features of the specific nutrients in a meal, nor following the latest trends.
a) Both the features of the particular nutrients in a meal and the most recent fashion should be continually followed to eat healthily.
b) A healthy diet does not require us to think too much about the features of the specific nutrients in a meal but it does require an awareness of the recent trends.
c) Being obsessed about the qualities of the particular nutrients in a meal and also following the latest trends do not help someone have a healthy diet.
d) One does not need to be too interested in the features of the specific nutrients in a meal but needs to follow the most recent fashion.
e) People who are not obsessed with the most recent trends and the qualities of some nutrients in a meal should achieve a healthy diet.

50. Officially the biggest street party on the planet, Salvador’s awesome Carnival offers greater participation and much more fun than its more famous counterpart in Rio.
a) Despite being more famous, Rio’s street party is just as large and fun, and it offers as much participation as the amazing Carnival held in Salvador, which is officially the largest on the planet.
b) Salvador’s amazing Carnival is officially the largest street party on the planet, and even though it is not as well-known as the one in Rio, it allows for greater attendance and is much more enjoyable.
c) Salvador has an amazing party named Carnival, similar to the famous one in Rio, although it is officially much bigger and can allow for just as much fun and participation as the one in Rio.
d) As it is officially the biggest street party on the planet, the Carnival in Salvador is more famous than the one in Rio and offers a higher degree of participation and fun for all participants.
e) The most famous party happens in Rio, which is the biggest street party on the planet, and it offers greater participation and just as much fun as the Carnival in Salvador.

51. The word ‘fossil’ comes from the Latin word fossilis, meaning ‘dug up’, and that is how some fossils are discovered, although most are exposed by erosion

a) Despite the fact that the word ‘fossil’ is derived from the Latin fossilis, which has the meaning ‘dug up’, not all fossils are discovered that way as they mostly appear due to erosion.
b) The word ‘fossil’ which originated from the Latin word fossilis, means ‘dug up’ but the way that most of them are discovered is through their appearance after erosion.
c) Unlike the ones that are discovered after appearing due to erosion, ‘fossils’ are ‘dug up’, as the meaning of the Latin word fossilis suggests.
d) The word ‘fossil’ is derived from the Latin word fossilis and it means being ‘dug up’ instead of being discovered after having emerged due to erosion.
e) Fossilis, which is the Latin origin of the word ‘fossil’, means discovered either when it is ‘dug up’ or emerged as a result of erosion.

52. As tourist numbers increase around the world, so do the types of activities they choose to undertake during their trip.
a) Tourists can now participate in a wide range of activities during their trip, which has boosted their numbers throughout the world.
b) Tourists have been increasing in number throughout the world, and accordingly, the activities they prefer to do during their trip are more varied.
c) The large variety of activities that people want to take part in during their trip has dramatically increased the number of tourists in many parts of the world.
d) Because tourist numbers have been increasing all over the world, activities offered to them during their trip must be increased to meet their needs.
e) Tourists, whose numbers are increasing throughout the world, believe that there is a sufficient range of activities to do during their trip.

53. Growth is more gradual in childhood than in infancy, but this is a time when new skills and knowledge are rapidly acquired.
a) When compared to infancy, people grow up more slowly throughout their childhood, though they gain new abilities and knowledge fast.
b) People get more knowledgable and develop new skills more rapidly in infancy than they do in childhood, when they grow up slowly.
c) The pace at which people acquire new abilities and knowledge, and grow up is more gradual in childhood than in infancy.
d) People who grow up faster in infancy develop new capabilities and knowledge in a longer period of time in childhood.
e) Growing up more slowly in infancy does not necessarily mean that acquiring new skills and knowledge in childhood will be fast.

54. You and a friend are supposed to meet for dinner at a restaurant. Your friend arrives twenty minutes late and says it was because of the traffic, which is normal in your city. Frustrated, you want to criticise your friend for being late, so you say: —-
a) I know. The traffic is always terrible around here, especially this time of day.
b) If you had planned ahead and left home earlier you wouldn’t have been late.
c) Next time why don’t you consider taking the metro? It isn’t affected by the traffic.
d) I really wish more could be done to deal with the traffic problem in our city.
e) It’s okay. The food here is usually not served in a timely manner, anyway.

55. You and your friends went out for dinner. Your friends all found their meals delicious but you were dissatisfied with yours. You disagree with them about the quality of the food, so you say politely: —-
a) The food was terrible. I’m going to write a very negative review for this restaurant.
b) This restaurant is very disappointing, especially the old decor and slow service.
c) I’m glad you all enjoyed your meals, but I must say I was a bit disappointed with mine.
d) It appears that none of us liked the food, let’s go somewhere else for good desserts.
e) I’m really sorry, but I won’t be joining you in this restaurant again.

56. Your friend’s mother is in the hospital and needs to have immediate surgery. Your friend is worried about her mother’s health. You try to empathise with her situation and console her by saying: —-
a) Your mother’s surgery is a major one and the chances of a full recovery seem a bit low. Good luck to your mom.
b) The doctors and nurses in this hospital are very
well-trained. If I needed surgery, I guess I would also choose this hospital.
c) Why don’t you take your mother to another doctor for a second opinion? This might help you feel much better and get rid of your doubts.
d) I know it’s difficult when our loved ones are ill, but I’m sure the operation will go well and your mother will feel better in a very short time.
e) Actually, my friend Jane’s mom had the same operation three times. But she still has a lot of pain, so I hope your mother’s will go better.

57. You suddenly realise that you’ve completely forgotten that yesterday was your best friend’s birthday, because you’ve been so busy studying. You sincerely apologise to your friend and say you’ll make up to her for it: —-
a) I’m so sorry I forgot about your birthday. I thought it was in summer.
b) My heartfelt apologies for forgetting your birthday. Let me take you to dinner to celebrate.
c) Sorry I forgot, but I don’t understand why some people are so obsessed with birthdays.
d) Forgive me for not buying you a present you'd like. Let’s celebrate next year.
e) I didn’t mean to forget your birthday, but I’ve just been so busy this week.

58. You couldn’t hand in your assignment on time, so you lied to your teacher about your mother being sick in hospital. The next day, your teacher found out the truth, then she phoned your mother. You are ashamed of what you did, and you apologise to your teacher: —-
a) It’s a shame my mother didn’t back me up. I won’t ever talk to her again.
b) I regret lying to you, but that’s my habit, and I can’t help it. But why did you call my mother?
c) Sorry, I shouldn’t have lied. The truth is I played computer games instead of doing the homework.
d) Sorry, I should have told you the truth. But then, you would have been worried about my mother.
e) I apologise to you for not handing in the assignment, but you had given us so little time to finish it.

59. Women are roughly twice as likely as men to suffer from stress-related psychiatric disorders, according to epidemiological analyses. The big question has always been: Why? Some experts argue that cultural factors are at least partly responsible. For instance, women may be more willing than men to seek help for mental illness, making their cases more likely to be counted. —- Scientists are uncovering telling differences in the ways that male and female brains react and adapt to stress.
a) But new evidence from research suggests that biology may also play an important role.
b) However, scientists have studied more males than females – even when investigating disorders.
c) Also, it is not only the stress-related disorders that are more prevalent among women than men.
d) Similarly, animal studies have revealed significant differences in stress responses.
e) In fact, research has linked uncontrolled stress to a wide range of mental health problems.

60. There are more than 600 ethnic or tribal groups in Africa, and only 53 countries. Many of today’s national boundaries were created in the late 19th century by colonial rulers. —- As a result, tribes are often split between different countries. The Ewe people, for example, are divided between Ghana and Togo. After independence, it has often  proved difficult to  create unity among the different  peoples in one country.
a) Africa is home to about 849 million people – more than one in eight of the world’s population.
b) Also, groups of nomadic people, who tend to roam together across many countries, are found throughout western Africa.
c) The most heavily urbanized region in Africa is northern Africa, and Cairo, in Egypt, is the largest city on the continent.
d) Borders sometimes follow natural features, such as rivers, but often they just follow straight lines on a map.
e) The war between the Hutu and Tutsi peoples has forced thousands of people to leave their homes.

61. The coffee tree is an evergreen. It grows in about 70 countries that offer suitable climates and altitudes. —- They are picked from the tree during harvest – they contain two seeds, which after processing become coffee beans. The main commercially grown coffee tree species are Arabica and Robusta. While Robustas are high-yielding and resistant to pests and diseases, producing coffee cherries with rustic flavour, Arabicas are generally superior in flavour.
a) As botanists discover new species with interesting flavours, the family tree of coffee continues to grow.
b) The trees are cultivated with care, and grow for about 3-5 years before they flower and produce fruit, known as coffee cherries.
c) The movement of hot and cold air influences how the coffee cherries mature and taste.
d) Many coffee varieties are genetically similar, but have acquired different regional or local names.
e) The look and flavour of coffee are influenced by many forces, such as soil, sun exposure and rainfall patterns.

62. —- A baby was born with a small head caused by incomplete brain development. The mother likely caught the virus in Brazil. Meanwhile, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have advised pregnant women against travel to countries affected by the Zika virus.
a) It is foreseen that the US will have to face deaths caused by the Zika virus in the near future.
b) The first case of brain damage linked to the Zika virus on the US soil has been reported in Hawaii.
c) The effects of the Zika virus have diminished dramatically in the recent years.
d) Brain damages caused by the Zika virus cannot be treated for the time being.
e) Scientists have estimated that the Zika virus may spread across Europe besides the US.

63. Plants and livestock need air, water, and nourishment to stay alive. If a plant does not have the kind of soil it needs, it may die. Similarly, animals also need to have the right climate and the right food to survive. Farmers try to raise the kinds of livestock and plants that will do well in their particular region. —- For example, many farmers in dry areas use irrigation, or artificial watering.
a) Farmers raise crops and livestock in every climate and in all kinds of different soil.
b) Plants and animals also supply such natural materials as cotton, flax, wool, and hides.
c) Agriculture provides the food and many of the raw materials that humans need to survive.
d) Some regions receive a lot of sunlight or rainfall while others have colder or drier weather.
e) If they do not have perfect natural conditions, they try to create the best conditions possible.

64. To produce a tomato with a longer shelf life, scientists managed to remove a gene from tomatoes that led to the softening of fruits as they age.
a) Bilim insanları, meyvelerin zamanla yumuşamasına yol açan bir geni domateslerden çıkarmayı başararak raf ömrü daha uzun bir domates ürettiler.
b) Meyvelerin zamanla yumuşamasına sebep olan bir gen, raf ömrünün uzatılabilmesi için bilim insanları tarafından domateslerden başarıyla çıkarıldı.
c) Bilim insanları, meyvelerin zaman içinde yumuşamasını önlemek için, domateslerden bir geni çıkararak raf ömrü daha uzun bir meyve üretmeyi başardılar.
d) Meyveleri zaman içinde yumuşatan bir geni domateslerden çıkarmayı başaran bilim insanları, raf ömrü daha uzun bir domates ürettiler.
e) Raf ömrü daha uzun bir domates üretmek için, bilim insanları meyvelerin zamanla yumuşamasına sebep olan bir geni domateslerden çıkarmayı başardılar.

65. Experiments have shown that spruce tree seedlings can grow in microgravity but they do not look quite the same as they do on Earth.

a) Deneylere göre, ladin ağacı fideleri yer çekimsiz ortamda büyüyebilmekte ancak tam olarak yeryüzünde oldukları gibi görünmemektedir.
b) Ladin ağacı fidelerinin yer çekimsiz ortamda büyüyebildiklerini ancak tam olarak yeryüzünde oldukları gibi görünmediklerini gösteren deneyler yapılmıştır.
c) Deneyler, ladin ağacı fidelerinin yer çekimsiz ortamda büyüyebildiklerini ancak tam olarak yeryüzünde oldukları gibi görünmediklerini göstermiştir.
d) Ladin ağacı fideleri üzerinde yapılan deneyler, fidelerin yer çekimsiz ortamda büyüyebildiklerini ancak tam olarak yeryüzünde oldukları gibi görünmediklerini göstermiştir.
e) Deneyler sayesinde ladin ağacı fidelerinin yer çekimsiz ortamda büyüyebildikleri ancak tam olarak yeryüzünde oldukları gibi görünmedikleri ortaya çıkmıştır.

66. Recently, it is estimated that about 20% of the school age population in the United States speaks a language other than English at home.
a) Son zamanlarda evde İngilizceden başka bir dil konuşanların, Birleşik Devletler’deki okul çağı nüfusunun %20’sini oluşturduğu tahmin ediliyor.
b) Son zamanlardaki tahminlere göre Birleşik Devletler’de okul çağındaki nüfusun yaklaşık %20’si evde İngilizceden başka bir dil konuşuyor.
c) Son zamanlarda Birleşik Devletler’de okul çağındaki nüfusun yaklaşık %20’sinin evde İngilizceden başka bir dil konuştuğu tahmin ediliyor.
d) Birleşik Devletler’de son zamanlarda evde İngilizceden başka bir dil konuşan nüfusun yaklaşık %20’sinin okul çağında olduğu tahmin ediliyor.
e) Son zamanlarda evde İngilizceden başka bir dil konuşan okul çağındaki nüfusun yaklaşık %20’sinin Birleşik Devletler’de olduğu tahmin ediliyor.

67. The role of scientific experiments is to get us closer to the truth by eliminating irrelevant considerations.
a) Bilimsel deneylerin işlevi, gereksiz düşünceleri ortadan kaldırmak ve böylece bizi gerçeğe daha fazla yakınlaştırmaktır.
b) Bilimsel deneylerin gereksiz düşünceleri ortadan kaldırması işleviyle gerçeğe daha fazla yaklaşırız.
c) Gereksiz düşünceleri saf dışı bırakmak ve bizi gerçeğe daha fazla yaklaştırmak bilimsel deneylerin işlevidir.
d) Bilimsel deneylerin işlevi, gereksiz düşünceleri saf dışı bırakarak bizi gerçeğe daha fazla yaklaştırmaktır.
e) Bilimsel deneyler bizi gerçeğe daha fazla yaklaştırmak için gereksiz düşünceleri ortadan kaldırma işlevini üstlenir.

68. Water makes up 60 per cent of our bodies and 75 per cent of our brains, but there are still plenty of misconceptions and myths in the public about how it relates to our health.
a) Su, vücudumuzun yüzde 60’ını ve beynimizin yüzde 75’ini oluşturduğu için halk arasında suyun sağlığımızla nasıl ilişkili olduğu hakkında hâlâ birçok yanlış kanı ve efsane vardır.
b) Vücudumuzun yüzde 60’ını ve beynimizin yüzde 75’ini oluşturan suyun sağlığımızla nasıl ilişkili olduğu hakkında halk arasında hâlâ birçok yanlış kanı ve efsane vardır.
c) Su, vücudumuzun yüzde 60’ını ve beynimizin yüzde 75’ini oluşturur ancak halk arasında hâlâ suyun sağlığımızla nasıl ilişkili olduğu hakkında birçok yanlış kanı ve efsane vardır.
d) Her ne kadar su vücudumuzun yüzde 60’ını ve beynimizin yüzde 75’ini oluştursa da, sağlığımızla ilişkisi açısından halk arasında hâlâ birçok yanlış kanı ve efsane vardır.
e) Suyun halk arasında sağlığımızla nasıl ilişkili olduğu hakkında hâlâ birçok yanlış kanıya ve efsaneye sebep olması, vücudumuzun yüzde 60’ını ve beynimizin yüzde 75’ini oluşturmasından kaynaklanmaktadır.

69. Psychologists began to investigate how science could measure human activity because unconscious thought is hard to measure or quantify.
a) Bilinçdışı düşünceyi ölçmek veya nicelemek güç olduğundan psikologlar bilimin insan etkinliğini nasıl ölçebileceğini araştırmaya başladılar.
b) Bilinçdışı düşünceyi ölçmekten ya da nicelemekten daha zor olduğu için, psikologlar bilimin insan etkinliğini nasıl ölçebildiğini araştırmaya başladılar.
c) Bilinçdışı düşünceyi ölçmenin ya da nicelemenin zor olması sebebiyle bilimin insan etkinliğini nasıl ölçebileceği psikologlar tarafından araştırılmaya başlandı.
d) Bilimin insan etkinliğini nasıl ölçebildiğini araştırmaya başlayan psikologlar için bilinçdışı düşünceyi ölçmek ya da nicelemek zordur.
e) Psikologların bilimin insan etkinliğini nasıl ölçebildiğini araştırmaya başlamalarının nedeni bilinçdışı düşünceyi ölçmenin ya da nicelemenin zorluğudur.

70. Hava kirliliğini duyduğumuzda araba egzozlarını ve büyük fabrikaları düşünürüz, fakat hava kirliliğinin en büyük kaynağı saç spreyi ve şampuan gibi evde kullanılan ürünlerdir.
a) When we hear air pollution, we think of the exhausts from cars and large factories, but household items including hair spray and shampoo cause more air pollution.
b) While we think that car exhausts and large factories are responsible for air pollution, hair spray, shampoo and other household items are the biggest sources of air pollution.
c) When we hear air pollution, we think of car exhausts and large factories, but the biggest source of air pollution is household items such as hair spray and shampoo.
d) Though household items such as hair spray and shampoo are the biggest causes of air pollution, we think of car exhausts and large factories when we hear the air pollution.
e) Contrary to what we think when we hear air pollution, household items such as hair spray and shampoo generate more air pollution than the exhausts from cars and large factories.

71. Dinozorlarla ilgili yapılan birçok güncel keşif, dinozorların kuşlarla paylaştığı benzerliklerin eskiden düşündüğümüzden çok daha fazla olduğunu vurgulamıştır.

a) Unlike what we once believed, dinosaurs have a lot more in common with birds, as emphasised by many recent discoveries.
b) The shared similarities between dinosaurs and birds highlighted in recent discoveries are more than we thought in the past.
c) According to several recent discoveries about dinosaurs, it is highlighted that the similarities they share with birds are much more than we once thought.
d) Most latest discoveries have stressed that dinosaurs share many more similarities with birds than we believed in the past.
e) Many recent discoveries made about dinosaurs have emphasised that the similarities they share with birds are much more than we once thought.

72. Avrasya’da ve Afrika’nın Nil bölgesinde ilk şehirlerin ortaya çıkması, insan hayatında hâlâ etkileri süren birçok değişikliğe sebep olmuştur.
a) The rise of the earliest cities in Eurasia and the Nile area of Africa is known to have introduced lots of changes in human life, the effects of which we still experience.
b) The rise of the earliest cities in Eurasia and the Nile area of Africa led to many changes that still have effects on human life.
c) The earliest cities emerged in Eurasia and the Nile area of Africa resulting in a number of changes that still continue to affect human life.
d) Several changes that took place due to the rise of the earliest cities in Eurasia and the Nile area of Africa have continued to be experienced in human life today.
e) Upon the emergence of the earliest cities in Eurasia and the Nile area of Africa, a number of changes were introduced into the lives of humans and their effects still continue today.

73. İngiliz yazar Jane Austen, gündelik hayattaki sıradan insanları ele alma şekliyle romana modern bir karakter kazandıran ilk yazardır.
a) Jane Austen, who was the first to give the novel its modern character through her treatment of ordinary people in everyday life, was an English writer.
b) The English writer Jane Austen was the first writer to give the novel its modern character through her treatment of ordinary people in everyday life.
c) Jane Austen, the first English writer, gave the novel its modern character through her treatment of ordinary people in everyday life.
d) Jane Austen was the first English writer giving the modern novel its character by her treatment of ordinary people in everyday life.
e) The novel got its first modern character from the English writer Jane Austen’s treatment of ordinary people in everyday life.

74. Para, insanların sattığı eşyalar ya da yaptığı iş için ödeme yapmak amacıyla yaygın olarak kullanılan bir ödeme biçimi veya bir değiş tokuş yöntemidir.
a) Money is a form of payment or method of exchange that is widely used to pay for goods people sell or work that they do.
b) Money, a form of payment or method of exchange, is widely used in order to pay for goods people sell or work that they do.
c) In order to pay for goods people sell or work that they do, money is widely used as a form of payment or method of exchange.
d) Being a form of payment or method of exchange, money is widely used to pay for goods people sell or work that they do.
e) Money is widely used to pay for goods people sell or work that they do as it is a form of payment or method of exchange.

75. Gıda güvenliği kuruluşları, klonlanan hayvanlar ve onların yavrularından elde edilen yiyeceklerin insan tüketimi için güvenli olup olmadığına dair hiçbir bilimsel gerekçe olmadığını beyan ettiler.

a) Food safety agencies have declared that they have not yet found any scientific reasons concerning the safe consumption of food from cloned animals and their offspring by humans.
b) There are no scientific reasons whether people can safely consume food from cloned animals and their offspring, which has been declared by food safety agencies.
c) There are no scientific reasons declared by food safety agencies as to whether food from cloned animals and their offspring is safe for human consumption.
d) Food safety agencies have declared that whether food from cloned animals and their offspring is safe for human consumption cannot be explained with any scientific reasons.
e) Food safety agencies have declared that there are no scientific reasons whether food from cloned animals and their offspring is safe for human consumption.

76. (I) Most psychologists still have not agreed on a definition of emotional intelligence. (II) Therefore, they define emotional intelligence in various ways, depending on which expert you ask. (III) The ‘discovery’ of the concept of emotional intelligence came about accidentally. (IV) Most definitions of emotional intelligence focus on your ability to be aware of,understand, and manage both your own as well as other people’s emotions in order to adapt to life’s demands and pressures. (V) Another definition is the ability to tune in to the world, to read situations, and to connect with others while taking charge of your own life.
a) I
b) II
c) III
d) IV
e) V

77. (I) A new electronic tattoo listens to the sounds of the human body, including the heart and muscles. (II) The sensor-loaded skin patch could be used for medical monitoring, like to detect irregular heartbeats, for example. (III) Electronic tattoos are a controversial issue as some people believe that they may harm the body because of the chemicals they include. (IV) Placed on the throat, it could also act as a human-machine interface by picking up the vibrations of your voice, even in noisy conditions. (V) In one demonstration, people used it to play games by voice control at a crowded party.
a) I
b) II
c) III
d) IV
e) V

78. (I) Coconut can be consumed in various ways, and its different parts have varying nutritional benefits. (II) Firstly there is the flesh or meat, which is typically blended with the water inside to create coconut milk. (III) This drink provides good sources of iron, selenium, as well as a bank of healthy saturated fats. (IV) It is the high saturated fat that has made coconut oil somewhat controversial with regard to cholesterol. (V) These nutrients help to support energy levels and nourish the lining of gut.
a) I
b) II
c) III
d) IV
e) V

79. (I) Milk chocolate differs from dark chocolate in two ways: it contains a smaller percentage of cocoa solids, and it is sweeter and smoother due to its milk content. (II) Milk chocolate is very popular around the world these days because it has been adapted to many different national tastes. (III) The recipe of it was perfected in Switzerland by Daniel Peter in 1875. (IV) For many years, manufacturers had tried to find a way of mixing cocoa paste with milk without much luck, due to the latter’s high liquid content. (V) The invention of condensed milk by Henri Nestle finally made this possible.
a) I
b) II
c) III
d) IV
e) V

80. (I) The majority of tourists visiting Greece are European, although large numbers of people also visit from North America. (II) Greece has a rich history stretching back thousands of years. (III) Yet, the modern nation state only won its independence from the Turks in 1829, and it took control of some islands as recently as 1947. (IV) Also due to its mountainous terrian and lack of natural resources, it was one of the poorest members of the Europen Union. (V) However, its large shipping fleet and earnings from tourism have helped the economy grow rapidly as time has passed.
a) I
b) II
c) III
d) IV
e) V

———-Anahtar———-

1. (e) 
2. (a) 
3. (c) 
4. (b) 
5. (a) 
6. (c) 
7. (d) 
8. (d) 
9. (a) 
10. (b) 
11. (b) 
12. (b) 
13. (b) 
14. (a) 
15. (c) 
16. (a) 
17. (b) 
18. (e) 
19. (c) 
20. (a) 
21. (d) 
22. (e) 
23. (e) 
24. (d) 
25. (e) 
26. (a) 
27. (b) 
28. (e) 
29. (a) 
30. (c) 
31. (a) 
32. (a) 
33. (d) 
34. (a) 
35. (a) 
36. (c) 
37. (a) 
38. (b) 
39. (e) 
40. (b) 
41. (c) 
42. (b) 
43. (c) 
44. (d) 
45. (d) 
46. (c) 
47. (e) 
48. (d) 
49. (c) 
50. (b) 
51. (a) 
52. (b) 
53. (a) 
54. (b) 
55. (c) 
56. (d) 
57. (b) 
58. (c) 
59. (a) 
60. (d) 
61. (b) 
62. (b) 
63. (e) 
64. (e) 
65. (c) 
66. (c) 
67. (d) 
68. (c) 
69. (a) 
70. (c) 
71. (e) 
72. (b) 
73. (b) 
74. (a) 
75. (e) 
76. (c) 
77. (c) 
78. (d) 
79. (b) 
80. (a) 

Author: Erdem OVAT