Preffixes Suffixes Dilbilgisi

Preffixes Suffixes Dilbilgisi

1-       COMMON AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

PREFIXES1.  NEGATION   : uncomfortable, discomfort   

2.  DIRECTION  : transatlantic, departure

3.  TIME              : post-war, antecedent

4.  PLACE           : subway, uphill

5.  NUMBER       : biennial, triangle

6.  DEGREE        : hypertension, ultraviolet

Aşağıda, yaygın olarak kullanılan öneklerin bir listesi ve anlamlan verilmiştir. Bu listeyi dikkatle inceleyiniz. Öneklerin anlamlarını bilmeniz, böyle bir sözcükle karşılaştığınızda, sözcüğün anlamını bilmeseniz bile yaklaşık bir tahminde bulunmanızı sağlayacaktır

COMMON PREFIXES

PREFIX

MEANING

EXAMPLES

A-

not, without

amoral, atheist

AB-

from, away from

absent, abstain  

AD-

to, towards

advance, adverse

AMBI-

both, double, two

ambiguous, ambivalent

ANTE-

before, in front of

antedate, anteroom

ANTI-

opposed to, against

antibiotic, antifreeze

BENE-

good, well

beneficial, benevolence

BI-

two, twice

bilingual, bicycle

CENT- (CENTI-)

a hundred

centimetre, century

CIRCUM-

around

circumnavigate, circumscribe

CO-

together with

coordinate, combine

CONTRA- (COUNTER-

against

contradict, counter-claim

DIS-

opposite of, not

disagree, disorder

EN-

make into, cause to be

endanger, encourage

EX-

out, out of, from

exclaim, exclude

 

at one time, former

ex-husband, ex-president

FORE-

before, in front of

foretell, forewarn

HYPER-

to a large or

 

 

extreme degree

hypersensitive, hypertension

IN- (IL-, IM-, IR-)

in, on, into

intake, inject

IN- (IL-, IM-, IR-)

not

immoral, irrelevant

INTER-

between, among

international, intercontinental

MID-

middle

midnight, midland

MIS-

wrong, not

mislead, misunderstand

MONO-

one, single

monochrome, monotone

MULTI-

many

multi-coloured, multiply

NON-

not

nonsense, non-stop

POST-

after

post-war, postcolonial

PRE-

before

premature, pre-war

RE-

again

rewrite, regain

SELF-

one's self, alone

self-service, self-taught

SEMI-

half, midway

semi-circle, semi-detached

SUB-

under

subsoil, subway

 

lower in rank

sub-committee, substandard

SUPER-

above, over

supermarket, superstructure

 

superior to, more than

superpower, superhuman

TRANS-

across

trans-atlantic, trans-continental

 

to a changed state

transform, transfer

UN-

not, opposite of

unable, unlock

UNI-

one, the same

union, unisex

UP-

to a higher or

upgrade, upstairs

 

better state

 

 

EXERCISE 1   : Add the correct prefix from the list to complete each word. Use each prefix twice.

anti-                       semi-                   contra-
co-                         inter-                   mid-
post-                      pre-                     self-
fore-                      super-                 trans-
mono-                    multi-                  up-
 
  1. crossing or spanning the Pacific                                                ……………….pacific
  2.  having many talents                                                                  ………………..talented
  3.  to take for granted; assume                                                       ……………….suppose
  4. of or having only one language                                                 ……………….lingual
  5. allowing continuous two-way transfer of information              ……………….active
  6. to affirm the opposite of something                                          ……………….diet
  7.  a substance applied to the skin to reduce or prevent                                                               perspiration                                                                                                 ………………..perspirant
  8. events remarkably being simultaneous or connected                ……………….incidence
  9. joint action                                                                                ……………….operation
  10. to estimate or calculate in advance                                            ………………. cast
  11. a note added below the signature in a letter as an afterthought                ……………….script
  12. disappointing contrast to a rise or build-up                               ………………..climax
  13. without changing or variety; boring                                           ……………….tonous
  14. partially automated                                                                   ………………..automatic
  15. ancestor                                                                                    ……………….bear
  16. to pull a tree, bush, etc. out of the ground; move                      ……………….root,
  17. the state of being not fully conscious                                        ………………..conscious
  18. along a river in the direction of its source                                 ………………..stream
  19. arrange beforehand                                                                   ……………….arrange
  20. between or among states                                                           ……………….state
  21. a very prominent performer                                                      ……………….star
  22. oppose, conflict with                                                                ……………….vene
  23. the middle of the summer                                                         ………………..summer
  24. to remove from one place and resettle in another                     ……………….plant
  25. occupied or concerned only with one's own affairs or wishes; egocentric; selfish                                                           ………………..centred
  26. the area of a playing field midway between the goals                             ……………….field
  27. declared to be so by oneself                                                     ……………….appointed
  28. A very large oil tanker                                                              ………………..tanker
  29. A millionaire many times over                                                  ………………. millionaire
  30. student, or studies, at a higher level after first degree has                                                             been obtained                                                                                                 ………………..graduate

1-2   SUFFIXES

Suffix , sonek anlamına gelir. Sözcüğün sonuna eklenerek yeni sözcükler türetir. Yapım eki olarak suffix, eklendiği sözcüğün türünü değiştirir. Örneğin "honest" sıfatı, "-y" ekinin gelmesiyle "honesty" ismini oluşturur.

A-       SOME NOUN-FORMING SUFFIXES

SUFFIX                                                            EXAMPLES

-AGE ………………………………………………………..       mileage, wreckage

-AL …………………………………………………………..       refusal, dismissal

-AN …………………………………………………………..      American, republican

-ANCE (-ENCE) …………………………………………..     avoidance, intelligence

-ANCY(-ENCY) …………………………………………..     fluency, agency

-ANT (-ENT) ……………………………………………….     recipient, deterrent

-ARD (-ART) ……………………………………………….    drunkard, braggart

-ATION ………………………………………………………     conversation, organisation

-DOM ………………………………………………………..      freedom, kingdom

-EER…………………………………………………………        engineer, pioneer

-ER (-AR, -IER) ……………………………………………     teacher, liar

-ERY …………………………………………………………      robbery, recovery

-ESS …………………………………………………………       manageress, mistress

-HOOD ………………………………………………………      childhood, neighbourhood

-ICE …………………………………………………………        prejudice, cowardice

-ION (-SION,-TION) …………………………………….     information, expansion

-ISM …………………………………………………………       criticism, socialism

-1ST ………………………………………………………….       egoist, feminist

-ITY ………………………………………………………….       probability, possibility

-MENT ………………………………………………………      agreement, disappointment

-NESS ……………………………………………………….       whiteness, eagerness

-OR …………………………………………………………..       actor, creditor

-SHIP ………………………………………………………..       friendship, kinship

-T ……………………………………………………………..       complaint, weight

-TH …………………………………………………………..       health, wealth

-URE, -ATURE …………………………………………..       pressure, signature

-Y …………………………………………………………….       honesty, delivery

EXERCISE 2 :        Make new nouns from the following words using the suffixes -hood, -dom and -ship.

NOTE          :        Bu üç sonek, çoğunlukla insanları ifade eden sözcüklere eklenerek soyut isimler türetir.

child – childhood (çocuk – çocukluk)

apprentice – apprenticeship (çırak – çıraklık)

king – kingdom (kral – krallık)

  1. censor …………………………
  2. premier ………………………
  3. lively …………………………
  4. star ……………………………
  5. chairman ……………………
  6. serf…………………………….
  7. companion …………………
  8. likely …………………………
  9. hard …………………………..
  10. statesman ……………………
  11. bore …………………
  12. craftsman …………
  13. relation …………….
  14. official ……………..
  15. court…………………
  16. wise …………………
  17. leader ……………….
  18. brother………………
  19. free ………………….
  20. owner ………………

EXERCISE 3  :        Using the suffixes -er (-ar), -or, -ist, -an (-ian) and -eer, make new nouns from the following words. Make slight changes in the spelling where it is necessary.

NOTE          :        Yukarıda belirtilen eklerin hepsi, insanların mesleğini ya da ne ile ilgili olduklarını belirten sözcükler türetir.

teach – teacher                   act – actor

republic – republican          tour – tourist

engine – engineer               Christ – Christian

  1. advise …………………..
  2. library ………………….
  3. psychology …………..
  4. active …………………..
  5. puppet …………………
  6. design …………………
  7. auction ………………..
  8. solicit ………………….
  9. machine ………………
  10. therapy………………..
  11. dive ……………….
  12. office …………….
  13. statistics …………
  14. mine ……………..
  15. mountain………..
  16. politics ………….
  17. music ……………
  18. vocal …………….
  19. optics ……………
  20. agitate …………..

EXERCISE 4 :        Give the abstract nouns derived from the following words using the suffixes -th or -t.

NOTE          :        -th ve -t, İngilizcede soyut isim türeten iki ektir. Genellikle, eklendikleri sözcükteki sesli harf değişikliğe uğrar.

fly – flight     die – death

  1. broad ……………………….
  2. grow ……………………….
  3. give ……………………….
  4. long ……………………….
  5. deep ……………………….
  6. hot …………………………
  7. dry ……………………….
  8. warm ……………………….
  9. wide ……………………….
  10. heal ……………………….
  11. freeze …
  12. young ..
  13. bear …..
  14. thief…..
  15. contain
  16. see …….
  17. high …..
  18. think …
  19. deceive .
  20. true …..

EXERCISE 5 :        Write the noun form of the following words using the suffixes below.

NOTE          :        -ance (-ence) , -ion (-tion,-sion) , -ment ve -ation (-ition,-cation),              İngilizcede isim türetirken yaygın olarak kullanılan eklerdir.

perform – performance      prefer – preference       admit – admission

act – action                         attend – attention

appoint – appointment

admire – admiration           apply – application      compete – competition

  1. divert ………………………………      
  2. embarrass…………………………
  3. insure ……………………………..
  4. excite ……………………………..
  5. suppress …………………………
  6. resist………………………………
  7. interrupt …………………………
  8. indicate …………………………..
  9. infer……………………………….
  10. invest……………………………..
  11. exist……………………………….
  12. imagine …………………………
  13. harass ……………………………
  14. resemble ………………………..
  15. grieve ……………………………
  16. abandon ………………………..
  17. rebel ……………………………..
  18. judge ……………………………..
  19. declare …………………………..
  20. involve ………………………….
  21. stimulate …………………………………
  22. emit…………………………………………
  23. accommodate……………………………
  24. maintain ………………………………….
  25. object ……………………………………..
  26. obsess …………………………………….
  27. argue ………………………………………
  28. achieve …………………………………..
  29. pay …………………………………………
  30. cancel ……………………………………..
  31. repeat……………………………………….
  32. omit…………………………………………
  33. interfere …………………………………..
  34. accumulate ……………………………….
  35. reflect……………………………………….
  36. annoy ………………………………………
  37. celebrate …………………………………..
  38. irritate ………………………………………
  39. disappoint …………………………………
  40. conclude ……………………………………

EXERCISE 6 :        Write the noun form of the following words using any of the noun-forming suffixes. Some of the words have two or more noun forms, with a different meaning.

Example                :        capable – capability

capacity

  1. sponsor ………………………
  2. attach …………………………
  3. occupy (4) ………………….
  4. rob (2) ……………………….
  5. please ………………………..
  6. drain …………………………
  7. proceed ……………………..
  8. compatible …………………
  9. seize ………………………….
  10. exhibit………………………..
  11. national (3) ………………..
  12. compete (2) ……………….
  13. terrorise (2) ……………….
  14. suffer (2) …………………..
  15. depend (2) …………………
  16. thick………………………….
  17. criticise …………………….
  18. equip ………………………..
  19. bound ……………………….
  20. idle……………………………
  21. fulfil ………………………..
  22. fundamental (2) ………..
  23. carry ……………………….
  24. pursue ……………………..
  25. industrial (3) ……………
  26. wild ……………………….
  27. cordial ……………………
  28. accelerate (2)
  29. remove ……………………
  30. hopeless ………………….
  31. describe …………………..
  32. efficient……………………
  33. constrain ………………….
  34. adequate …………………..
  35. real (3) …………………….
  36. rehearse …………………..
  37. bake (2) …………………..
  38. approve ……………………
  39. tend …………………………
  40. dense ……………………….
  41. prejudge …………………..
  42. suppose ……………………
  43. consume (2) ……………..
  44. visible ………………………
  45. leak………………………….
  46. like …………………………..
  47. postpone ……………………
  48. perform (2) ……………….
  49. friend ……………………….
  50. recur ………………………….

EXERCISE 7 :          Choose the correct answer.

1. Dorothea Lange's photographs show the……….. of homeless migrant workers during the Great Depression.

A) repayment                              B) validity

C) compensation                             D) insulation

E) desperation

2. There is a boating lake, a swimming pool and a bowling alley at Central Park and lots of other things you can do for ………….

A) collection                               B) recreation

C) extension                                   D) fixture

E) compound

3.We have had a new telephone system fitted today, but at the moment, we are experiencing a lot of ………. on the phone lines,

A) interference                            B) stability

C) occurrence                                             D) fulfilment

E) attitude

4. When his mother died, his total ……….. included a large house, £50,000 and a large collection of antiques, but he gambled it all away in less than a year.

A) inheritance                             B) donation

C) adoption                                     D) hindrance

E) treatment

5. They fought bitterly about how their possessions should be divided, but eventually they came to a/an ………. . She would keep the house and he would keep the car and all their savings.

A) contraction                             B) carriage

C) engagement                                D) agreement

E) ceremony

6. They sent someone from another department to help us get the order out on time, but as he is unfamiliar with our systems, he has been more of a ………. than a help.

A) hesitation                               B) postponement

C) hindrance                                   D) treatment

E) participation

7. The ………. has caused all the wells to dry up in the area, so both livestock and people are in danger of dying of thirst.

A) dusk                                       B) lightning

C) frost                                                       D) drought

E) eclipse

8. Remarkably, among all the dead bodies in the ………. of the train after the crash, a tiny baby was found alive.

A) remainder                               B) disaster

C) tracks                                         D) rails

E) wreckage

9. Skiing on difficult runs takes great ……… . A skier must keep aware of the path ahead, watch out for obstacles and prepare himself for turns.

A) eagerness                               B) behaviour

C) concentration                         D) usefulness

E) attitude

10. Harriet Tubman escaped slavery in the Southern USA in 1849 and helped many others attain ……. in the North.

A) freedom                                 B) serfdom

C) sovereignty                                D) autonomy

E) exhilaration

11.Practically anyone can enjoy fishing; however, a certain amount of ……… is necessary as there is an amount of waiting involved.

A) formality                                B) patience

C) calculation                             D) expertise

E) punctuality

12. When Indonesia occupied East Timor in 1976, it met fierce ……….. from the East Timorese, an estimated 100,000 of whom died in the struggles that followed.

A) reflection                               B) attraction                                           

C) resistance                                   D) enemy

E) tribalism

13. In earlier times, because of the ……… of wood in some Highland areas of Scotland, homes were made out of the branches of the heather shrub cemented together with mud.

A) density                                   B) cultivation

C) environment                              D) scarcity

E) construction

14.Do you have a/an ……….. regarding the type of the holiday resort you are looking for?

A) endurance                              B) interpretation

C) distance                                      D) likeness

E) preference

15. Due to the construction work on the main road, there was a ……… in operation, so we had to drive to work through a different route today, which is longer than our usual route.

A) shipment                                B) prevention

C) diversion                                D) distraction

E) deformity

16. Old fashioned coal-fired ovens were very economical. They cooked food, heated water and the ………. from them heated the kitchen as well.

A) temperature                            B) material

C) growth                                       D) warmth

E) content

17. Some of the Eskimos of Alaska are fishermen, while others earn their ……….. from the herds of reindeer, which roam the area.

A) occasion                                 B) livelihood

C) development                              D) occupation

E) vocation

18. We have received several ……… about the low quality of our products. I'm afraid we'll have to take them into consideration.

A) objections                              B) hardships

C) complaints                                 D) attitudes

E) emotions

19. During the sinking of the 'Titanic', there were acts of ………. and lifeboats pulled away half empty, even though there were many passengers waiting on the ship to be rescued,

A) cowardice                              B) membership

C) interruption                               D) wreckage

E) transportation

20.He felt responsible for the explosion at the factory and offered his …….. just after the incident.

A) application                             B) retirement

C) refusal                                    D) dismissal

E) resignation

21.I have enough ………. in the bank to buy a new car, but as long as my old one keeps running, I'm reluctant to spend a lot of money to replace it.

A) wages                                     B) salaries

C) costs                                           D) notes

E) savings

22. When a gift belonging to Princess Diana was stolen by one of the staff at her former residence, this incidence of……… made the headlines in the newspapers.

A) width                                      B) proof

C) posture                                      D) theft

E) treatment

23. He is a/an ………. who makes his money by renting out accommodation at extortionate charges to immigrants.

A) mountaineer                           B) profiteer

C) cashier                                        D) auctioneer

E) hijacker

24.The leopard lay on the ground some distance away from the ……… of buffalo deciding which one to chase for his dinner.

A) band                                       B)gang

C) herd                                            D) board

E) pile

25. It was through her ……… with the Field Studies Council that she found out about Dr Stabilo's research.

A) maintenance                           B) feasibility

C) association                                D) astonishment

E) ignorance

26.As most of the deaths from earthquakes occur as a result of the collapse of man-made structures, the most effective way for us to reduce the impact of them is to construct buildings with the ……… of withstanding shaking.

A) capability                               B) instability

C) reliability                                    D) hostility

E) generosity

27. It is unfair to make a/an ………. between my performance and Roger's as he has been with toe company much longer than me.

A) suggestion                              B) ability

C) comparison                               D) ignorance

E) pretence

28. Bedouin nomads show their guests their ……… by brewing a fresh pot of coffee with special utensils, which are handed down from father to son.

A) deception                               B) hospitality

C) hostility                                      D) patience

E) resilience

29. What I find annoying about uncle Fred is that he has to tell me everything three times at least. I really don't know what the point of all this ……… is.

A) confusion                               B) coherence

C) bewilderment                            D) recommendation

E) repetition

30. Without the ……… of the local people, who donated quite large sums, this hospital for terminally ill patients would have to close down.

A) generosity                              B) wisdom

C) reliance                                     D) warmth

E) division

B-       SOME ADJECTIVE-FORMING SUFFIXES

SUFFIX                                 MEANING                                    EXAMPLES

-ABLE (-IBLE) …………………..                                            showing qualities of, ………….         portable, flexible that can be

-AL …………………………………                                              having qualities of ……………..        natural, magical

-ANT (-ENT) ……………………..                                             having the character of……….         significant, dependent

-ATE (-ITE) ………………………                                             having ……………………………..         affectionate, passionate

-FUL ……………………………….                                              full of ………………………………        skilful, meaningful

-1C (-ICAL) ……………………….                                            resembling ……………………….         romantic, dramatical

-ISH ………………………………. resembling, in the manner of..       childish, snobbish

-IVE……………………………….. having a tendency towards …..       constructive, impulsive

-LESS …………………………….. without ……………………………         helpless, useless

-LY …………………………………                                              like …………………………………          cowardly, friendly

-ORY ………………………………                                              relating to ………………………..          compulsory, explanatory

-OUS ……………………………… having the qualities of, full of        famous, vigorous

-WORTHY ……………………… deserving ………………………….       trustworthy, praiseworthy

-Y ………………………………….  resembling, full of………………       gloomy, salty

Bu eklerin yanı sıra, İngilizcede yaygın olarak sıfat türeten ekler -ing ve -ed dir.

disappoint-disappointing-disappointed

annoy – annoying – annoyed

EXERCISE 8           :             Write the adjectives for the definitions below, using the suffixes -able or -ible.

NOTE         :         Bu ekler sözcüğe "can be ….." anlamını verir.

You can believe it. — believable

You can see it. — visible

  1. You can notice it.              ………………
  2. You can reverse it.             ………………
  3. You can transfer it.            ………………
  4. You can forget it.               ………………
  5. You can break it.               ………………
  6. You can hear it.                 ………………
  7. You can collapse it.           ………………
  8. You can resist it.                ………………
  9. You can replace it.             ………………
  10. It can be conceived.           ………………
  11. You can control it.             ………………
  12. You can wash it.                ………………
  13. It can be argued.                ………………
  14. You can access it.              ………………
  15. You can carry it.                ………………

EXERCISE 9           :             Find words ending in -y to match the following definitions.

EXAMPLE           :         full of good health — healthy

  1. in the shade from the sun ……………………
  2. silent and bad-tempered ……………………..
  3. very dirty …………………………
  4. enjoys telling people what to do …………….
  5. not warm enough for comfort; rather cold
  6. fibrous; resembling string ……………………
  7. containing lumps …………………………
  8. food with a pleasant flavour …………………
  9. frightening …………………………
  10. food with a lot of juice in it…………………..
  11. metal which has oxidised …………………….
  12. not working properly; imperfect …………….
  13. full of wit…………………………
  14. with curls …………………………
  15. resembling cream in taste or consistency .

EXERCISE 10   :           Write the adjective forms of the following words. Some of the words have two or more adjective forms with a different meaning.

EXAMPLE :           explain —      explicable (açıklanabilir)

                     explanatory (açıklayıcı)

imagine —     imaginary (hayal ürünü)

                     imaginative (hayal gücü kuvvetli olan, yaratıcı)

  1. appreciate ……………………
  2. permit (2) ……………………
  3. resist (2) ……………………..
  4. favour (2) ……………………
  5. glamour ………………………
  6. manage ……………………….
  7. compete ………………………
  8. incident ……………………….
  9. length ………………………….
  10. comprehend………………….
  11. profit ………………………….
  12. grieve …………………………
  13. possess ………………………
  14. regret …………………………
  15. chaos ………………………..
  16. offence ………………………
  17. obsess ………………………..
  18. succeed (2) …………………
  19. hysteria ………………………
  20. initiate ……………………….
  21. satisfy (2) …………………..
  22. recur ………………………….
  23. caution (2) ………………….
  24. observe (2) …………………
  25. bureaucrat……………………
  26. urge ……………………………
  27. sense (3) ……………………..
  28. harmony ……………………..
  29. bear …………………………….
  30. slip ……………………………..

EXERCISE 11   :           Write the adjective forms of the following words, adding -ly or -y.

NOTE          :           -ly eki, bazı isimlere eklenerek sıfat türetir.

friend — friendly mother — motherly

  1. haste ……………………………
  2. greed …………………………..
  3. mud ……………………………
  4. wealth………………………….
  5. shine …………………………..
  6. risk …………………………….
  7. sand ……………………………
  8. coward ……………………….
  9. bounce ……………………….
  10. love ……………………………
  11. grease ……………………………
  12. crunch …………………………….
  13. salt…………………………………
  14. week ……………………………….
  15. brother……………………………
  16. live …………………………………
  17. anger ………………………………
  18. cost…………………………………
  19. fog ………………………………….
  20. air …………………………………..

C-       AFFIXES OF NEGATION

İngilizcede önekler un-,  in- (il-,  im-,  ir-),  dis- ve non- ve sonek -less,  sözcüğün anlamını olumsuz yapmamızı sağlar.

in- eki, "l" ile başlayan sözcüklere eklenirken il-, "m" ve "p" ile başlayan sözcüklere eklenirken im-, "r" ile başlayan sözcüklere eklenirken ir- biçimine dönüşür.

legal — illegal                              logical — illogical

moral — immoral                        perfect — imperfect

regular —irregular                       responsible — irresponsible

Ancak, bazı istisnaların olabileceğim göz önünde bulundurmamız gerekir. Örneğin aşağıdaki sözcükler, "p, m, r" harfleriyle başladığı halde un- ekiyle olumsuz yapılırlar.

pleasant — unpleasant

manly — unmanly

real — unreal

Olumsuzluk eklerini genel olarak bütün sözcük türlerine (isim, fiil, sıfat, zarf) ekleyebiliriz.

advantage (noun) — disadvantage

obedient (adjective) — disobedient

agree (verb) — disagree

agreeably (adverb) — disagreeably

Bn/.i di in unlarda, sözcüğün türü değişince aldığı olumsuzluk eki değişebiliyor.

comfortable (adjective) — uncomfortable

comfort (noun, verb) — discomfort

satisfaction (noun) — dissatisfaction

satisfactory (adjective) — unsatisfactory

EXERCISE 12   :           Write the opposite form of the following words, using the prefixes in-, il-, ir-, im-.

1-   solvent ……………………….                 11-  destructible……………………….

2-   literate ……………………….                  12-  sensitive …………………………..

3-   partial…………………………                  13-  legible ……………………………..

4-   competent …………………..                 14-  measurable ……………………….

5-   perfect ……………………….                  15-  modest …………………………….

6-   adequate …………………….                  16-  precise ……………………………..

7-   relevant ………………………                 17-  convenient ………………………..

8-   distinct………………………..                 18-  pure ………………………………..

9-   reversible ……………………                 19-  legitimate ………………………….

10-   resistible ……………………..                 20-  penetrable …………………………

EXERCISE 13   :           Write the adjective forms of the following words and their opposites with in- or un-.

ADJECTIVE    OPPOSITE                           ADJECTIVE    OPPOSITE

1-   worth            ……………..      …………….    6-    dispute   ……………..   ……………..

2-   conclude       ……………..      ……………..   7-    avoid     ……………..   ……………..

3-   desire            ……………..      ……………..   8-    product  ……………..   ……………..

4-   wisdom         ……………..      ……………..   9-    operate  ……………..   ……………..

5-   cohere           ……………..      ……………..   10- consider  ……………..   ……………..

 

 

 

EXERCISE 14               :       Complete the following sentences, using the negative adjectives from the list above.

  1. We are having the telephone engineers in the office this morning fitting a new phone system, and because they have been working around our desks, we have been  …………………. — we haven't been able to get much work done.
  2. Some people believe that fishing purely for sport is cruel, but its popularity is ………………….. . Far more people go angling than take part in any sporting activity.
  3. After two floods in three years and scientists predicting that global warming will make flooding more common and more severe, it is ………………….. to buy a house too close to the river.
  4. After the scandal, many people thought he was ………………….. of keeping his position of President.
  5. Turkish Airlines apologised for the delay, which they explained was ………………….. because of snow and ice on the runway.
  6. Because of the rising crime rate, this once attractive pail of Birmingham is now a/an …………………… place to live in.
  7. Many people are concerned that the radioactivity in mobile phones is harmful, but so far research has been ………………….. .  From the results, scientists cannot be sure that mobile phones cause any harm, but they are advising caution.
  8. The new procedure is ………………….. . When the management announced the new system, it sounded convincing, but in practice, it is impossible to carry out the processes according to the new plan.
  9. Because of some interference on the telephone line, your message was ……………….. .
  10. We moved house today and because the previous owners of our new flat were so …………………… they had removed all the old light bulbs and, as we hadn't brought any with us, we had to light some candles in the evening.

EXERCISE 15   :           Complete the list using the suffixes -ful and -less where possible.

NOTE          :           The suffix -ful means "having, filled with" and -less means "without". Some of the following words can take both suffixes, and some can take only one.

EXAMPLE     :           care            careful          careless

skill            skilful           —–

worth         ——              worthless

-ful                         -less

  1. respect       ……………..            ……………..
  2. thank         ……………..            ……………..
  3. cease          ……………..            ……………..
  4. power        ……………..            ……………..
  5. job             ……………..            ……………..
  6. pity            ……………..            ……………..
  7. limit           ……………..            ……………..
  8. help           ……………..            ……………..
  9. joy             ……………..            ……………..
  10. stain           ……………..            ……………..
  11. peace         ……………..            ……………..
  12. plenty        ……………..            ……………..
  13. scorn          ……………..            ……………..
  14. colour        ……………..            ……………..
  15. hope          ……………..            ……………..
  16. aim            ……………..            ……………..
  17. thought      ……………..            ……………..
  18. taste           ……………..            ……………..
  19. law             ……………..            ……………..
  20. pain           ……………..            ……………..

EXERCISE 16   :           Write the adjective forms of the following words and their opposites with dis-, in-, un-, non- and -less

 
 

ADJECTIVE    OPPOSITE                           ADJECTIVE    OPPOSITE

1-   offend          ……………..      …………….    9-                  accustom         ……………..      ……………..

2-   dispense        ……………..      ……………..   10-                obey                ……………..      ……………..

3-   honour          ……………..      ……………..   11-                will                  ……………..      ……………..

4-   violence        ……………..      ……………..   12-                event                ……………..      ……………..

5-   courtesy        ……………..      ……………..   13- use          ……………..   ……………..

6-   office            ……………..      ……………..   14- alcohol    ……………..   ……………..

7-   decide           ……………..      ……………..   15- exist        ……………..   ……………..

8-   advantage     ……………..      ……………..   16- adequacy     ……………..      ……………..

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE 17   :           Complete the following sentences, using the negative adjectives from the list above.

  1. Despite its name, ginger beer is …………………….. and perfectly safe for children to drink.
  2. He would like to open another restaurant, but at the moment, he has ……………………..  money.
  3. We had expected an active day out with Stephen and his brother and sister, but unfortunately, the heavy rain made us stay at home, so we spent a/an …………………….. day watching television.
  4. The captain knew he would be overpowered by the enemy, but he was …………………….. to surrender and decided to fight on.
  5. It is an affluent country and, although there is some poverty, slums are …………………….. . All the housing is at least adequate.
  6. The furniture polish the cleaner uses smells disgusting. Can't we buy her some with a/an …………………….. smell, or even a perfumed one with a pleasant scent?
  7. The air stewardess was told that she would appear …………………….. if she didn't address the foreign ambassador as 'Your Excellency".
  8. Martin Luther King met a bloody death, despite advocating …………………….. civil rights activities himself.
  9. When learning a foreign language, you should have a good dictionary, which is a/an …………………….. tool you will use constantly to look up new words or check the meanings of vocabulary.
  10. In Japan during the Second World War, it was considered …………………….. to allow oneself to be captured. The decent course of action was suicide.
  11. Stewart rode his bike along the side of the river, which was …………………….. as his mother had told him not to.    
  12. The new tax law is …………………….. to those who have their own cars but are also given company cars by their employers. They will pay more tax.
  13. The result of the Battle of Bull Run in the American Civil War was …………………….. . It was not a clear victory for either side.
  14. She is finding it difficult to be punctual for her new job as she is …………………….. to getting up so early in the morning.
  15. Dad has been struggling with his car engine non-stop since the morning, and I'm afraid it is in a much worse condition now. Isn't it time that he realised he is …………………….. at repairing things?
  16. Although the true capital of Benin is Porto-Novo, the …………………….. capital and the political and commercial centre of the country is Cotonou.

EXERCISE 18   :           Add un- or dis- to the verbs below.

NOTE          :           dis-, eklendiği fiile olumsuz bir anlam kazandırır.

like — dislike (sevmek — sevmemek)

believe — disbelieve (inanmak — inanmamak)

un- ise, yapılan eylemin tersini ifade eder. Genellikle un+verb Türkçeye olumlu bir anlamda çevrilir.

cover — uncover (örtmek — (kapalı bir şeyi) açmak)

lock — unlock (kilitlemek — (kilitli bir şeyi) açmak)

1-   charge           ……………..…………….           9-                  wind      ……………..……………..

2-   balance         ……………..……………..          10-                place      ……………..……………..

3-   do                 ……………..……………..          11-                qualify      ……………..……………..

4-   close             ……………..……………..          12-                plug      ……………..……………..

5-   embark         ……………..……………..          13- infect      ……………..……………..

6-   veil               ……………..……………..          14- approve  ……………..……………..

7-   locate            ……………..……………..          15- appoint   ……………..……………..

8-   mount           ……………..……………..          16- fasten      ……………..……………..

 

 

 

EXERCISE 19   :           Complete the following sentences, using the negative verbs from the list above, in the correct form.

  1. If there is no air turbulence, passengers can normally ………………….. their seat belts, once the plane has taken off.
  2. She had done the pattern in her knitting wrong and had to ………………….. most of it.
  3. My husband always ………………….. everything electrical before he goes to bed.
  4. My parents ………………….. of smoking and don't allow anyone to smoke in their house.
  5. The flood waters were contaminated with sewage, so the area had to be thoroughly ………………….. before the residents could return to their homes.
  6. Fire extinguishers normally ………………….. either water or foam.
  7. Because the rooms were expensive, we were expecting a luxury hotel, so we were quite ………………….. to find out that there were very few facilities.
  8. There are two restaurants at the hotel and most people like to eat in the upstairs restaurant, so the work load between the two is ………………….. . The waiters in the upstairs restaurant have much more to do than their counterparts downstairs.
  9. In the athletic sport of long jump, a jumper is ………………….. if he steps over a white line before leaping into the sand pit.
  10. The reel of a fishing rod is designed in such a way that the line ………………….. without any friction. This allows the fisherman to cast his line at a distance accurately.
  11. The Mayor ………………….. a plaque at the new hotel in celebration of its opening.
  12. Because more and more rich people are buying second homes in the country and driving up the prices of rural housing, many country people are being ………………….. and are being replaced by business people.
  13. As the Governor ………………….. from his private jet, he was assassinated by a terrorist.
  14. Our best player ………………….. his elbow during the match, but he has recovered now and will play next week.
  15. The policeman signalled for me to stop. After parking in front of me, he ………………….. from his motorcycle and walked towards me, opening his notepad.
  16. When all the facts were ………………….. to the public, it became clear that the government of the time were telling the English public that British beef was safe to eat, when they had plenty of evidence to the contrary.

EXERCISE 20   :           Add mis- or dis- to the following words.

NOTE          :           mis-, eklendiği sözcüğe "yanlış" anlamını verir.

understand — misunderstand ( anlamak — yanlış anlamak)

dis- ise sözcüğü olumsuz yapar.

orderly — disorderly (düzenli — düzensiz)

1-   spend            ……………..…………….           9-                  inform      ……………..……………..

2-   print              ……………..……………..          10-                solve      ……………..……………..

3-   illusion          ……………..……………..          11-                similar      ……………..……………..

4-   behave          ……………..……………..          12-                judge      ……………..……………..

5-   integrate        ……………..……………..          13- colour     ……………..……………..

6-   treat              ……………..……………..          14- lead         ……………..……………..

7-   fortune          ……………..……………..          15- loyal       ……………..……………..

8-   satisfied        ……………..……………..          16- spell        ……………..……………..

 

 

 

EXERCISE 21   :           Complete the following sentences, using the negative words from the list above in correct forms.

  1. If the government of the time knew that British beef was unsafe to eat and still proclaimed that there was no problem with it, then they seriously ………………….. the public.
  2. I'm sorry, Sir. I'm afraid you have been ………………….. . The conference doesn't start until three o'clock this afternoon.
  3. Five years ago she won the lottery, but she quickly ………………….. her fortune on parties, gambling and clothes.
  4. Over 18,000 buildings ………………….. immediately during the atomic bombing of Nagasaki. Not a trace of them was left.
  5. The bar gets so smoky that the wallpaper, which was once white, has ………………….. and turned to a dirty brown.
  6. My son continually ………………….. the word, 'governor'. He always forgets that there is an 'r' in the middle of the word.
  7. We could have won the match, if only Andy Gray hadn't ………………….. his shot at goal and sent the ball wide of the post.
  8. The managing director is ………………….. with the performance of our branch and has called an emergency meeting to discuss ways in which we can improve our productivity.
  9. Layfayette, who became a hero in the American Revolution, was imprisoned for five years in 1792  for being ………………….. to the Queen of France.
  10. In the famous incident known as 'The Mutiny on the Bounty', the ship's captain, Bligh, was set adrift by his crew for ………………….. them.
  11. They had always held the professor in the highest esteem, but when they heard about his drinking and gambling, they became ………………….. and could no longer take his theories seriously.  
  12. Moths and butterflies are not ………………….. from each other, but butterflies fly during the day and moths emerge at night.
  13. Sugar cane and sugar beat are processed into syrup or granules so that they …………………. in tea, coffee and other liquids.
  14. Don't you dare ………………….. at Aunt Lucy's this afternoon. She is very old and not in the best of health, so please be good for her.
  15. The family have suffered a great deal of ………………….. lately. He has lost his job, her mother has become ill and the roof of their house has started leaking.
  16. Although hundreds of hopeful customers rushed to the store, they found out that the newspaper ………………….. the company's advertisement and that the new washing machines were not £50.99 but £150.99.

D-       SOME VERB -FORMING AFFIXE S

-en, -fy (-ify), -ise (-ize) ve -ate ekleri bazı isimlerin ve sıfatların sonuna eklenerek fiil türetir.

 

ADJECTIVE

 

VERB

 

NOUN

 

VERB

 

dark

short

deep

mad

 

darken

shorten

deepen

madden

 

length

strength

threat

fright

 

lengthen

strengthen

threaten

frighten

 

ADJECTIVE

 

VERB

 

NOUN

 

VERB

 

real

civil

equal

modern

 

realise

civilise

equalise modernise

 

memory familiar

apology

critic

 

memorise

familiarise

apologise

criticise

 

ADJECTIVE

 

VERB

 

NOUN

 

VERB

 

simple

ample

clear

pure

 

simplify

amplify

clarify

purify

 

beauty

terror

class

justice

 

beautify

terrify

classify

justify

 

ADJECTIVE

 

VERB

 

NOUN

 

VERB

 

active

necessary

different

alien

 

activate

necessitate differentiate

alienate

 

stimulus

assassin motive

accent

 

stimulate

assassinate

motivate

accentuate

 

 

En- eki, bazı sözcüklerin önüne gelerek fiil türetir.

ADJECTIVE

 

VERB

 

NOUN

 

VERB

 

sure

large

rich

able

 

ensure

enlarge

enrich

enable

 

cage

danger

courage

trap

 

encage

endanger

encourage

entrap

 

ac-, im- ve be-, bazı fiillerin oluşumunda görebileceğimiz eklerdir.

knowledge -acknowledge

prison – imprison

friend – befriend

EXERCISE 22   :           Write the verb forms of the following words, using the affixes -en, -fy            (-ify), -se (-ise), -ate and en-.

  1. analysis   …………………….
  2. social      …………………….
  3. standard  …………………….
  4. sign         …………………….
  5. colony    …………………….
  6. case        …………………….
  7. loose       …………………….
  8. soft         …………………….
  9. familiar   …………………….
  10. sweet      …………………….
  11. joy          …………………….
  12. fabric      …………………….
  13. vapour    …………………….
  14. straight    …………………….
  15. sharp       …………………….
  16. circle       …………………….
  17. tranquil   …………………….
  18. hospital   …………………….
  19. worse      …………………….
  20. economy …………………….
  21. less         …………………….
  22. invalid    …………………….
  23. false        …………………….
  24. terror       …………………….
  25. horror     …………………….
  26. décor      …………………….
  27. tail          …………………….
  28. ripe         …………………….
  29. identity   …………………….
  30. formula   …………………….

EXERCISE 23   :           Complete the sentences, using the verbs from the list in EXERCISE 22. Use the correct form of the verb.

  1. If he doesn't have this operation, his limp might …………………….. to a situation in which he can't walk at all.
  2. The painter was supposed to start…………………….. the reception area today, but for some reason he hasn't turned up.
  3. We normally eat at a restaurant on Friday nights, but we haven't been doing so for the last three weeks as we are trying to …………………….. so that we will be able to afford a holiday abroad this year.
  4. The computer programmer …………………….. a program for the head chef which calculates his wholesale food order at the touch of a button.
  5. The film from the shop's closed-circuit television camera helped …………………….. the robber and it was not long before the police were arresting him.
  6. The forged one-hundred-dollar bills were very close copies of genuine money, but the police laboratory technicians …………………….. the paper and this proved that they were counterfeit.
  7. The nation of Ghana, which was …………………….. by the British in 1874, gained independence in 1957.
  8. Low calorie soft drinks are …………………….. with artificial additives such as saccharin and aspartame.
  9. The upper part of the city of Quebec is …………………….. entirely by heavy walls built by the British in the early 19th century.
  10. The referee must make sure that a weight lifter lifts the bar up until both his arms are …………………….. completely. Only then does the lift count as a successful attempt.
  11. The bananas we buy in our shops are picked from the tree when they are green and left to …………………….. during the long voyage here.
  12. We refer to Chinese as a language, but this language varies from region to region, to such an extent that understanding can be difficult. In an effort to …………………….. the language throughout the country, the Chinese government developed Pinyin in 1953, which uses the Roman alphabet to spell words and to indicate their pronunciation.
  13. The woman appeared before television cameras and was tearful and distraught as she described how her boyfriend had been stabbed by an attacker. Later it emerged that she had …………………….. this entire story. She had actually stabbed him herself.
  14. Heavy oil, gasoline and kerosene are all extracted from crude oil in the course of it being …………………….. but they are formed at different temperatures.
  15. If you work while you are staying in this country on a student visa, this may …………………….. your visa and you could be asked to leave.
  16. She bought an antique jewellery box, which was made of wood …………………….. in ivory and gold.
  17. Apparently, everybody …………………….. the party very much, especially the food, which was delicious.
  18. Training as a chartered accountant…………………….. three years at university, followed by four years' practical training.
  19. The owner and the accountant of the company were arrested because it turned out that they had ………………………….. many of the documents and received tax return from the state on goods a hundred times more than what they actually exported.
  20. The sight of her best, friend from school living in such poverty …………………….. her.
  21. It took all of his strength to keep a tight grip on the rope, taut he knew that if he …………………….. his grip, his companion would fall to his death in the valley below.
  22. The dam on the Columbia River has two positive roles: It generates electricity and …………………….. the danger of floods.
  23. Many early civilisations used arrows to kill animals. Arrows were made from stone, shell, horn, antlers or bone …………………….. into a point.
  24. The Romans conquered Britain, but they failed to overpower the tribes of the North, so, in order to stop these painted warriors from …………………….. them in sporadic raids, they built a wall stretching from one coast of England to the other.
  25. If she wants to enter the race for a position on the council, she will have to …………………….. more with prominent people in the town.
  26. In sign language, which is used in communication involving deaf people, a different position of the hand and fingers …………………….. a different letter.
  27. She thought that she would have to be ……………………… but the surgeons were able to carry out the minor surgery during the day and she returned home that evening.
  28. Your university course starts on the 1st October, but we recommend that you arrive a couple of clays earlier and use this time to …………………….. yourself with the facilities, such as the library.      
  29. Before the tigers were transported from the Greek zoo to England, the warden …………………….. them using a special medication.
  30. Because the water is particularly hard where we live, we have installed an appliance to the tap which …………………….. the water.

E-       THE ADVERB-FORMING SUFFIXES

-ly eki, sıfatlara ve bazı isimlere eklenerek zarf türetir.

ADJECTIVE

 

ADVERB

 

ADJECTIVE

 

ADVERB

 

happy

wise

gentle

cruel

 

happily

wisely

gently

cruelly

 

skilful

shy

favourable

free

 

skilfully

shyly

favourably

freely

 

NOUN

 

ADVERB

 

NOUN

 

ADVERB

 

hour

day

night

 

hourly

daily

nightly

 

week

month

year

 

weekly

monthly

yearly

 

-wise, eklendiği sözcüğe zarf anlamı kazandıran bir ektir. Yaygın olarak kullanılmaz. Ancak, "similarly" ile aynı anlamı veren "likewise" ve "or else" anlamını veren "otherwise" yaygın olarak kullanılan zarflardır.

Bazı sözcükler başına a- eki alarak zarf işlevi görürler.

board

cross

float

like

 

—         aboard

—         across

—         afloat

—         alike

 

part     —

shore   —

head    —

side     —

 

apart

ashore

ahead

aside

 

EXERCISE 24   :           Give the adjective and adverb forms of the following words

ADJECTIVE                       ADVERB

  1. Offend             ………………………….       ……………………..
  2. sense (2)          ………………………….       ……………………..
  3. suffice             ………………………….       ……………………..
  4. tact                   ………………………….       ……………………..
  5. extend              ………………………….       ……………………..
  6. consider (2)     ………………………….       ……………………..
  7. sarcasm            ………………………….       ……………………..
  8. base                 ………………………….       ……………………..
  9. envy (2)           ………………………….       …………………….. 
  10. elegance           ………………………….       …………………….. 
  11. excess              ………………………….       ……………………..
  12. anxiety             ………………………….       ……………………..
  13. specify             ………………………….       ……………………..
  14. relation            ………………………….       ……………………..
  15. persuade          ………………………….       ……………………..
  16. coincide           ………………………….       …………………….. 
  17. history             ………………………….       ……………………..
  18. defence            ………………………….       ……………………..
  19. hazard              ………………………….       ……………………..
  20. expense           ………………………….       ……………………..

EXERCISE 25   :           Complete the sentences with an adjective or adverb from the list in EXERCISE 24.

  1. Charles Dickens wrote in detail about the daily life of his day in his works; therefore, his books provide an accurate …………………….. account of conditions at the time as well as being entertaining.
  2. There was ice on the roads this morning, making the road …………………….. . We had to be careful not to skid on the ice.
  3. Do you think she is …………………….. talented to gain a scholarship to art school?
  4. Because my eyes are ……………………… to sunlight, I always have to wear sunglasses whenever it is sunny.
  5. ……………………… the couple that have bought my mother's house work in the same office as me. I hadn't mentioned that the house was for sale. They had seen it in the local newspaper.
  6. Graham Green wrote …………………….. about spies and foreign espionage. In fact, he wrote so many novels that he even forgot that he had written one book and left it unpublished for years.
  7. She was not………………………. enough to avoid hurting his feelings when she criticised him in front of many others.
  8. As the ugly man with the scar prepared his punch, Adrian held his hands over his face  ……………………. .
  9. I hadn't really considered solar heating before, but the salesman detailed the benefits to us so …………………….. that we believe it is by far the best option for us.
  10. This tool kit is designed …………………….. for model aircraft enthusiasts. It has all the tools needed to construct a detailed model.
  11. The motorist waited …………………….. in the service reception while the service manager  calculated his bill. He hoped the repairs wouldn't cost him his entire week's wages.
  12. Since he won the game show, Craig has had …………………….. success as a TV personality.
  13. The City & Guild's Food Hygiene Certificate is the most…………………….. requirement for anyone working in a commercial kitchen. Of course, there are many more advanced qualifications available.
  14. Susan was given the …………………….. job of greeting the President and his wife at the airport and escorting them to their hotel. Everyone working in the airport services division wished they had been given this task to perform.
  15. After inheriting his father's business, he began to drink …………………….., which eventually destroyed his life.
  16. Liam Gallagher is notorious for shouting …………………….. remarks at other celebrities. Just last week, he insulted Robbie Williams and Kylie Monogue.
  17. We got on the wrong bus by mistake, which meant that we arrived at the airport too late to board our plane. It cost us an extra £250 to fly home, so it was quite a/an …………………….. mistake.
  18. Americans have always visited Mexico, but in …………………….. small numbers. In recent years, the Mexican government has invested heavily in attracting tourists and the country's beaches are becoming very popular.
  19. I could not believe how beautiful Jamie looked dressed in a/an …………………….. evening dress. I had only ever seen her in jeans.
  20. After Dorothy's picture appeared in the local newspaper because she had won the local bowls championships, one of her colleagues …………………….. told her that she would be famous. Dorothy took his comments seriously, though, and expected a national magazine to contact her.

 

2-  WORD FORMATION

İngilizce sözcük dağarcığınızı geliştirmek için iyi bir yöntem, bildiğiniz bir sözcükten başka sözcükler türetebilmek ya da yeni bir sözcük öğrenirken, onu diğer türleriyle birlikle öğrenmektir. Bilmediğiniz bir sözcüğün anlamını öğrenmek için sözlüğe baküğımzda. o sözcüğün diğer türlerini ya aynı bölümde ya da yakınında bulacaksınız. Bunların hepsine göz gezdirmek size çok şey kazandıracaktır.

Örneğin "compel" fiilini öğrendiğiniz zaman ondan türeyen şu  sözcükleri de dağarcığınıza eklemek mümkündür.

compelling       compulsory    compulsive(ly)      compulsion

Bu bölümdeki alıştırmalarda sizden istenen, birinci bölümde incelediğimiz ekleri de gözönünde bulundurarak, verilen sözcükten cümleye uygun yeni bir sözcük türetmektir. Bu alış tırmalan yaparken, öncelikle cümleyi dikkatle okuyunuz ve cümleyi tamamlayacak olan sözcüğün türünü belirlcytniz (isim,.sıfat, zarf. fiil). Eğer sözcük bir isim ise tekil ya da çoğul oluşunu; sıfat ya da zarf ise olumlu ya da olumsuz oluşunu; fiil ise, tense kurallarını da dikkate alınız.

Example      :

1-      It has been raining ……………… for two days. (STEADY)

2-      Most of the …………….. were arrested. (DEMONSTRATE)

3-      Trains are so ……………… that 1 have to take the bus to work. (RELY)

4-      In order to …………………. the economy, the government has taken certain measures recently. (STABLE)

Bu cümlelerden birincisinde, boşluğa "yağmurun nasıl yağdığım" anlatan bir sözcük yani bir zarf getirilmesi gerekiyor: steadily

İkinci    cümlede,   bir   isim   tamlamasının,    isim   bölümünün   olmadığını   görüyoruz.   Ancak getireceğimiz ismin çoğul olması gerekiyor: demonstrators

Üçüncü cümlede, bunluğa getireceğimiz sözcüğün 'Trains" öznesini tanımlayan bir sıfat olması gerekiyor. Cümlenin devamından, trenlerle ilgili bir olumsuzluğun ifade edildiği anlaşıldığı için. bu sıfatın olumsuz olması gerekiyor: unreliable

Dördüncü cümledeki boşluk ise bir âil gereküıiyor: stabilise

WORD FORMATION 1

  1. There have been a number of …………………………. killings in American                            schools in recent years.                                                                                                         SENSE
  2. Room 13 is filled with the …………………………. smell of stale tobacco.                               Would you please spray some air freshener in it?                                                        PLEASE
  3. It was much harder to ski on traditional wooden skis. They were harder                                   to turn due to their …………………………. .                                                                     RIGID
  4. Two men were arguing in the street last night. I don't know what they                                    were arguing about, but they were causing quite a …………………………. .                                   DISTURB
  5. In Quebec province, …………………………. in French is required by virtually                                        all employers.                                                                                                 FLUENT
  6. His loving wife placed the wreath of flowers …………………………. on his                                     coffin.                                                                                                                  MOURN
  7. He is leading an expedition to try to find the …………………………. of a                                               ship which sank during World War II carrying Jews" across the Black Sea.    WRECK
  8. I went back to the shop to buy another one at the same price for my                                              brother, but, ………………………….. they had sold out of them.                                        FORTUNE
  9. Bill Bryson adds his sense of humour to …………………………. accounts                                                of his journeys around the world to make them enjoyable reading.                     FACT
  10. The Moorish kingdom in Spain collapsed in the 15th century                                                           due to a ……………………. of Spanish military strength and internal unrest.              COMBINE
  11. It was the knowledge of his loving family campaigning for his release that                                      made imprisonment …………………………..                                                            BEAR
  12. It is not so much the heat in Houston, Texas, that makes living without                                           air-conditioning unbearable, but the …………………………. .                              HUMID
  13. Heinrich Boll wrote many novels and won the Nobel prize for literature,                                       but for me his …………………………. is reflected most powerfully in his                                             ironic and humorous short stories.                                                                                                       BRILLIANT
  14. The Normandy landing was one of the …………………………. battle scenes                                           in the entire Second World War.                                                                                   BLOOD
  15. The saying, '…………………………. is better than cure,' refers to the belief                                              that it is better to do everything in one's power to avoid an illness than                                               to deal with its consequences.                                                                                           PREVENT
  16. The common …………………………. known as a cleft palate is quite easy                                              to rectify with modern surgical techniques.                                                               ABLE
  17. Carl has become a little …………………………. at work and has started                                               looking for a better job.                                                                                                  CONTENT
  18. You have to pay a ten-pound …………………………. deposit. If you decide                                          not to take the coach trip, then you lose your deposit.                                                REFUND
  19. Don't feel like a …………………………. just because you didn't get an 'A'                                             for geometry. You can't be good at everything.                                               FAIL
  20. The children who have grown up in Sierra Leone during their bloody                                          civil war have witnessed unparalleled ………………………….. such as                                              instant executions and amputations.                                                                                              BRUTAL

WORD FORMATION 2

  1. I'm sorry, but your handing in every assignment late is totally                                     …………………………. .                                                                                                                  ACCEPT
  2. Hong Kong Chinese have made up a sizeable ethnic ………………………….                                             in Canada since China regained control of their territory.                                           MINOR
  3. The …………………………. of miners voted against the strike for fear that                                             they would lose their jobs.                                                                                           MAJOR
  4. She has been working from home since the …………………………. of her                                              son in September.                                                                                                 BEAR
  5. While experience in sales isn't a …………………………. for this job as                                                  training will be given, it would be helpful.                                                                         NECESSITATE
  6. Last week Chloe was going to leave and now she is applying for the                                                    training program. I have never known anyone so …………………………. .                 DECIDE
  7. Gordon accepted the mission ………………………….. He was forced to                                                      do it by his commander.                                                                                         VOLUNTEER
  8. Initially the council refused planning permission for their new house. It                                               was only because of her …………………………. that they agreed.                                PERSIST
  9. You should stay off work today; otherwise, your condition might                                    ………………………….                                                                                                                  WORSE
  10. Ironically, the floods led to a …………………………. of clean drinking                                                   water as most of the water was contaminated with chemicals and sewage.                      SHORT
  11. Terry Vandan writes …………………………. for The Daily Mail and never                                           agrees to write articles for any other newspaper.                                                               EXCLUDE
  12. The small village church has had hundreds of visitors since a widow                                           reported the face of Jesus …………………………. appearing on the ceiling                                                   of the building.                                                                                                                                                    MIRACLE
  13. Simon seems to enjoy doing …………………………. things, such as                                                     rock-climbing, paragliding and mountaineering.                                                                DANGER
  14. Some of the other players joined in the ………………………. with the referee.       ARGUE
  15. He behaved so badly in prison that he was put into solitary                                              ………………………….                                                                                                                   CONFINE
  16. My sister loves living in Texas, but I find the ………………………….                                                     there in the summer unbearable.                                                                                  HOT
  17. Cecile had two …………………………. . She could study at Oxford or she                                              could travel to America to study at Harvard.                                                                 CHOOSE
  18. The suspect is being …………………………. . He has refused to tell the                                                police anything about the drug smuggling gang.                                                                  COOPERATE
  19. When the …………………………. of the Ottoman house is completed , it is                                             going to be opened as a hotel.                                                                                      RESTORE
  20. There is no …………………………. between the coastal holiday resorts of the                                           British Isles and those on the Mediterranean. The latter are far superior.                      COMPARE

WORD FORMATION 3

  1. real

     

     

    1. Although Stephen is optimistic about his work with the charity which helps refugees and provides lawyers for them, he is also a ……………………… and accepts that many of them will eventually be deported.
    2. George had always believed in the captain, so the ………………………. that the scandal was true came as a terrible shock.
    3. The reports in the German state-owned newspaper during the Second World War bore no relation to the ……………………… . They reported great victories for the Germans and many citizens were shocked when they learnt the truth.
  2. imagine

     

     

    1. My friend's four-year-old son has an ……………………… friend called Amos and he even insists that a place for Amos is laid at the table. He pretends to feed him.
    2. A:    What will be the new product for which we will design an advertising campaign as our assignment?

B:    I have no idea.

A:    Neither have I, but we had better use our ………………………. because, until we have thought of a revolutionary new product, we can't start drawing up a plan.

  1. ……………………… horrors took place in the Bosnian War. The way people were treated was disgusting.
  1. hesitate

     

     

    1. His opponent beat him to the buzzer, so a moment's ……………………… lost Jeffrey the final and the prize of a new car.
    2. As she was not entirely certain of the information she had, she responded to the teacher's question ……………………… .
    3. She was a little ……………………… about agreeing to the idea at first, but then she decided to take the risk.
  2. able

     

     

    1. Although architects and city planners in developed countries are increasingly aware of the needs of …………………….. people, there are still areas where â person confined to a wheelchair cannot enter.
    2. The doctor was ……………………… assisted by two nurses.
    3. There are a number of skills and ……………………… which are essential for teaching children.
  3. produce

     

     

    1. The workers have been ……………………… today because they have been too busy discussing the proposed strike.
    2. Mobile phones that can connect to the Internet are a super new ……………………… .
    3. Because of the economic crisis, the factory ended ……………………… two weeks ago.
  4. stable

     

     

    1. The economic crisis in East Asia is largely to blame for the ……………………… in Indonesia at the moment.
    2. As soon as his condition ………………………. we can transfer him from the intensive care unit to a normal ward.
    3. Children who have grown up in ……………………… home environments very often develop psychological problems that last into the adulthood.
  5. active

     

     

    1. The detonator on a land mine is ……………………… when somebody treads on it or a vehicle runs over it.
    2. While he is no longer ……………………… involved in running the company, the directors often ask him for his advice.
    3. In the summer the staff at the crèche organise some outdoor ……………………… for the children.
  6. differ

     

     

    1. I love planning the interior design of our house, but my husband shows a complete  …………………….. to it.
    2. Vanessa and I answered the same essay question, but I approached the subject completely …………………….. from her.
    3. Wild sheep are ……………………… from domesticated sheep in both size and colour.
  7. destroy

     

     

    1. The fire caused the complete ……………………… of the night club.
    2. Although the toy manufacturers claimed that the toy was virtually ………………………. our son had only had it half an hour when he broke it.
    3. Ambition in a moderate amount is necessary for success, but too much of it can be ………………………
  8. profession

     

     

    1. The Mayor applauded the council for working with such ……………………… .
    2. He became a ………………………. in September after appearing in many amateur productions.
    3. Arriving late for his appointment with the client was totally ……………………… .
  9. patient

     

     

    1. He could have been a great manager if it hadn't been for his ……………………… with all the staff.
    2. He waited ……………………… tapping his foot on the floor to show his agitation.
    3. Being a house painter takes a certain amount of ……………………… because the painter needs to take his time in order to produce a good job and sometimes he has to wait for the paint to dry.
  10. responsible

     

     

    1. His mother didn't think he had acted ……………………… and said he wasn't ready to go into town on his own.
    2. As the flood warden, it is his ……………………… to phone any businesses and residents who are likely to be affected by a flood.
    3. She is a/an ……………………… mother who lets her eight-year-old son play outside until midnight.
  11. predict

     

     

    1. I didn't enjoy the film as the plot was clearly ……………………… from the beginning. I like films which keep the audience in suspense till the end.
    2. The film was great. The ending was so ……………………… that it came as a great surprise.
    3. He made many ……………………… about the future, several of which have already come true.
  12. inform

     

     

    1. The leaflet contains ……………………… about meningitis and how to detect it.
    2. The programme on cancer treatment was very ………………………. wasn't it? We have learnt a Jot about the new techniques.
    3. I'm sorry, but I think you have been ……………………… . The library is closed on Thursday afternoons.
  13. decorate

     

     

    1. Are these flower-shaped things on top of the cake edible or are they purely
    2. The ……………………… are going to paint the reception after the restaurant, so can you cover all the furniture with these white sheets?
    3. The family have put up some ……………………… for the party they are giving in honour of Mark's homecoming.
  14. courage

     

     

    1. Being aware of the difficulties, her mother didn't ……………………… her to be a ballerina like herself, but she was determined to study at ballet school.
    2. He ………………………. swam put into the shark-infested water in order to save the drowning boy.
    3. It took a great deal of ……………………… from her friends and family before Jackie entered the talent contest.
  15. enthuse

     

     

    1. He is a sporting ……………………… and plays tennis, basketball and hockey.
    2. I don't think he will put aside much time for the campaigning because he is giving his support ……………………… .
    3. Barış Manço always had a great ……………………… for helping children and many of them looked up to him.
  16. separate                                

     

     

     

    1. The two friends study together, play together and eat together most evenings. They are  practically ……………………….
    2. The hardest thing for Mark to bear in prison was the long ……………………… from his family.
    3. I don't want to see you both together. Would you come and see me ………………………. please?
  17. excuse

     

     

     

    1. I think the act itself was ………………………. but the way they tried to cover it up was unforgivable.
    2. Could I be ……………………… from the table as I have a lot of homework to do?
    3. He was ……………………… late for the monthly meeting with the board of directors, which made the manager furious.

EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS

1. I  didn't ………… we would be leaving quite so early.

A) consult                               B) expect                       C) wait

D) ask                                      E) determine                            (ÖYS 1991)

2. They couldn't find a house in London at a price they could………… .

A) obtain                                B) demand                          C) get

D) afford                                 E) require                                            (ÖYS 1991)

3. Although he appears to be fluent in English, his sentences are full of grammatical ………… .

A) wrongs                               B) dangers                          C) mistakes

D) duties                                  E) rules                                                (ÖYS 1992)

4. The new cashier soon ………. himself to be both efficient and trustworthy.

A) proved                               B) spoiled                           C) exaggerated

D) upheld                                E) undermined                                     (ÖYS 1992)

5. Have you seen the ………… for the 5 day-trip to Scotland for only  $ 150 ?

A) reservation                         B) dream                           C) holiday

D) advertisement                     E) newspaper                                       (ÖYS 1993)

6. Such accidents are usually the result of carelessness and can be avoided by taking a few simple …………. .

A) reasons                              B) wonders                     C) explanations

D) precautions                         E) introductions                                   (ÖYS 1994)

7. I didn't want to ………. with Peter about doing the washing up.

A) apologize                           B) conclude                        C) quarrel

D) contrast                               E) blame                                              (ÖYS 1995)

8. What attracted most attention in his speech was his ………. to create new jobs.

A) strike                                  B) election                          C) precaution

D) promise                               E) doubt                                  (ÖYS 1995)

9. In order to ………… this theory, we carried out a number of experiments.

A) contest                               B) persuade                        C) inherit

D) engage                                E) demonstrate                                    (ÖYS 1996)

10. The ……… about the date of the meeting was the result of a typing error.

A) dependence                       B) approval                       C) confusion

D) expression                          E) contribution                        (ÖYS 1996)

11.Our school has managed to collect a lot of books to ………. to the children in a village school.

A) distribute                            B) publish                           C) contain

D) depart                                 E) employ                                            (ÖYS 1997)

12. Everyone knows that these two firms have been in fierce ……… to get the job of running the hotel.

A) involvement                       B) management                  C) reference

D) arrangement                        E) competition                                     (ÖYS 1997)

13. I don't know the scheduled time of……….. but I do know that the plane to Istanbul has already left.

A) purchase                            B) customs                        C) accommodation

D) reference                            E) departure                                         (ÖYS 1998)

14. Parents who understand child behaviour are more ……. about their ability to handle difficult situations.

A) familiar                              B) watchful                       C) confident

D) virtuous                              E) forgiving                                         (ÖYS 1998)

15. Although the new manager has been very strict with us, he is highly ……. by everyone in the company.

A) required                             B) respected                       C) refused

D) challenged                          E) expected                                         (ÖYS 1998)

16. Foods that were …….. seasonal may now be found throughout the year.

A) properly                             B) satisfactorily                 C) previously

D) rapidly                                E) seriously                                         (ÖYS 1998)

17. During a family discussion on our next holiday plans, my father asked me for my ……… .

A) opposition                          B) reason                            C) disappointment

D) suggestion                           E) denial                                              (YDS 1999)

18. They …….. that their team is far better than ours and they expect to win the forthcoming match.

A) claim                                  B) regard                            C) include

D) prefer                                  E) object                                              (YDS 1999)

19. Several of my friends have entered the …….. but none of them expects to win.

A) performance                      B) application                     C) competition

D) responsibility                      E) vacancy                                          (YDS 2000)

20. The survivors of the shipwreck who were able to reach the land decided to ……. a fire and wait to be rescued.

A) make                                  B) do                                  C) show

D) set                                       E) put                                      (YDS 2000)

21. The melting of all the ice mass in the Arctic would …….. the sea level by several metres.

A) establish                             B) preserve                         C) raise

D) restore                                 E) spoil                                                (YDS 2000)

22. I tried hard to ….. why the motor would have to be replaced, but he couldn't understand what I was trying to say.

A) insist                                  B) complain                        C) reply

D) inform                                E) explain                                            (YDS 2001)

23. The market for computers and all related goods has been ….. rapidly in recent years.

A) reaching                             B) expanding                      C) exploring

D) exceeding                           E) disturbing                           (YDS 2001)

24.The company is not only looking for well-qualified people, it also wants them to be ….. about their work.

A) enthusiastic                        B) comprehensive          C) relevant

D) indifferent                          E) convenient                          (YDS 2001)

25.I met your father once years ago, but I can ….. remember him.

A) hardly                                B) enormously               C) extremely

D) immensely                          E) simultaneously                                (YDS 2001)

TEST YOURSELF 1

1. Housework and laundry are ……….. jobs. No one has ever won an award for keeping the cleanest house in the area.

A) priceless                                B) thankless

C) ruthless                                      D) faithful

E) eventful

2. She didn't want her husband to give up his job at the bank and set up a restaurant, yet, although ………… she helped him decorate his new business premises.

A) reluctantly                             B) persistently

C) irreversibly                               D) attentively

E) solely

3. I ……….. the beans in plenty of water for about twenty minutes before I mixed them with the sauce.

A) boiled                                    B) fried

C) grilled                                        D) broiled

E) roasted

4. Had it been a light shower, we probably would have strolled around the open market in Venice, but the rain was ………… so we found a cafe and watched the rain instead.

A) wet                                        B) waterproof

C) soothing                                D) predictable

E) torrential

5. Three hundred people used to work at this factory, but that was before the complete ……….. of the production process. Now machines have replaced most of them.

A) priority                                  B) formation

C) practicality                            D) automation

E) celebration

6. The shop-assistant claimed that this product would kill weeds ………… but I've used it twice in my garden and I still have to pull out weeds here and there.

A) interestingly                          B) effectively

C) descriptively                         D) superficially

E) courageously

7. You don't need any special ……….. to go hiking, whereas for mountaineering, you require quite a few specialist items, such as ropes, hooks and ice-axes.

A) equipment                             B) directions

C) recommendation                   D) exercise

E) attachments

8. In Turkey, cafes, which provide a place for people to meet, play cards and chat
without spending much money, are very ………. in villages. In fact, there are hardly any without one.

A) sparse                                    B) proportionate

C) common                                D) extravagant

E) frequent

9. The river is dangerously high. If you stand and watch it, you can actually see the water level …………

A) exceeding                              B) raising

C) expanding                             D) rising

E) reckoning

9. We didn't ……….. to sell out of this item so soon; otherwise, we would have ordered more of it.

A) dictate                                   B) consult

C) assume                                  D) expect

E) wait

10. Only five years ago, digital video diskettes were too expensive for most people, but now they are ……….. for almost anyone and very popular.

A) affordable                             B) demanding

C) sustainable                            D) compatible

E) predictable

11. I usually ask someone else to read my essays before I hand them in as I don't always see my own ……….. .

A) dangers                                 B) wrongs

C) mistakes                                D) rules

E) duties

12. Nelson Mandela ……….. himself to be not only an effective campaigner for equality in South Africa but also a fitting president of the country.

A) spoiled                                  B) proved

C) undermined                           D) exaggerated

E) cautioned

13. The landlady said that all the kitchens in their self-catering apartments have a complete range of cooking ………..

A) weapons                                B) components

C) segments                               D) utensils

E) apparatus

 

14. There are a number of……….. that can be taken against flood damage, including sealing doors and windows and building walls of sandbags.

A) wonders                                B) reasons

C) precautions                           D) introductions

E) conclusions

15. The builders had splashed some cement onto the floor and we had to ……….. it off using a knife.

A) grind                                     B) press

C) push                                      D) grate

E) scrape

16. The twins are always ……….. over who needs to use the computer most, so we are going to buy another one.

A) blaming                                 B) concluding

C) contrasting                             D) quarrelling

E) apologising

17. Malnutrition in the upper classes of society was ……….. unheard of, but today some rich people are so fond of junk food that they acquire vitamin deficiencies.

A) closely                                  B) seriously

C) subsequently                         D) properly

E) previously

18. The salesmen are attending a trade show in Vienna and it is my job to find suitable ……….. for them there.

A) departure                               B) accommodation

C) reference                               D) resemblance

E) composure

19. The student representative should be someone with an outgoing personality and someone who is ……….. by his or her fellow students.

A) respected                               B) challenged

C) revenged                               D) refused

E) contested

20. Last summer I got a job ……….. telephone directories to local businesses.

A) publishing                             B) departing

C) distributing                                D) containing

E) employing

21. The witness ……….. to tell the court the truth, and nothing but the truth.

A) struck                                    B) swore

C) recounted                              D) doubted

E) reminded

22. We all thought we were lost. Steve, however, was ……….. of his map reading abilities and assured us that we were on the right path.

A) inestimable                            B) watchful

C) familiar                                 D) confident

E) envious

23. Before he let the trainees try out the new move, the karate instructor………..  it himself.

A) engaged                                 B) demonstrated

C) persuaded                             D) inherited

E) indicated

24. When he opened his language school in Welshpool, it was the only one in the town, but since then many more schools have been opened and now there is quite a lot of ……….. in the business.

A) competition                           B) reference

C) conversation                         D) compromise

E) management

25. Changing the lecture hall at the last minute caused some ……….. among the students.

A) expression                             B) approval

C) contribution                          D) confusion

E) dependence

26. I bought my sister a bracelet as a ……….. for her birthday.

A) bouquet                                 B) ceremony

C) gift                                        D) reward

E) celebration    

27. Recent research has suggested that mobile phones are ……….. dangerous, especially for children. Scientists believe that prolonged usage of a mobile phone may damage a child's brain.

A) potentially                             B) strategically

C) eventually                             D) sorrowfully

E) remorsefully

28. After they announced that the company had made a loss, a reduction in the value of their shares was ……….. .

A) impossible                             B) descriptive

C) inevitable                              D) illogical

E) illegible

29. As a police officer, Shirley is not supposed to get……….. involved with the families she deals with, although this is sometimes impossible.

A) negligently                            B) inexcusably

C) emotionally                           D) regretfully

E) reverently

30. Jason was ……….. accused of killing his wife. In order to fool the police, the murderer had used his gun and made it look as if he had killed her.

A) bravely                                  B) sarcastically

C) voluntarily                            D) falsely

E) solidly

31. My Indian friend gave me a ……….. for chicken casserole, which I have used several times, and it is very delicious.

A) recipe                                    B) schedule

C) menu                                     D) receipt

E) direction

32. We are less concerned with how fast you can type than with your level of ……….. in spelling and punctuation.

A) construction                          B) tolerance

C) vigour                                    D) stability

E) accuracy

33. If he hopes one day to be the managing director of the company and works hard for it, then he must be a very ……….. person.

A) shameless                              B) inferior

C) bearable                                D) ambitious

E) reliable

34. The disruption to train services throughout the Midlands has caused a lot of ……….. for commuters.

A) conviction                             B) inconvenience

C) deterioration                          D) justification

E) observance

35. Obviously, the dog attacked the small child without any ………. . The child was just playing quietly when the animal attacked.

A) acceptance                            B) destination

C) provocation                           D) adjustment

E) brutality

36. After six months under siege by the enemy, they had no choice but ……….. or face starvation.

A) wither                                    B) collapse

C) weaken                                  D) loosen

E) surrender

37. A period of drought has created a serious …….. of food in the area.

A) usage                                     B) shortage

C) consumption                         D) disability

E) failure

38. Because he was wearing a red uniform, we ……….. that the boy standing in front of the hotel was the bellboy.

A) assumed                                B) requested

C) contained                              D) analysed

E) rehearsed

39. You can catch an overnight train to Geneva, or ………… you can catch the night bus.

A) considerably                          B) hastily

C) dramatically                          D) alternatively

E) systematically

40. If you are committed to achieving your aim, you shouldn't let minor setbacks ……….. you.

A) oppress                                  B) elevate

C) deceive                                  D) encourage

E) demoralise

41. The first ……… replacement eyes were used by the ancient Egyptians and were moulded from gold or silver. Today, they are produced in plastic and painted to match a patient's good eye.

A) hygienic                                B) superficial

C) organic                                  D) man-made

E) traumatic

42. When the biggest car factory in the country closed down, unemployment ……….. its highest level in history.

A) increased                               B) reached

C) declined                                D) established

E) achieved

43. Democracy should secure the rights of ethnic ……….. in a country.

A) minorities                              B) fragments

C)gangs                                      D) bands

E) departments

44. The partners in the business are joint partners and all decisions are made

A) collectively                            B) positively

C) descriptively                          D) plainly

E) partially

45. If you are going to the supermarket, would you pick me up a loaf of bread? It doesn't……….. whether it is wholemeal or white as I want it to make köfte.

A) concern                                 B) matter

C) worry                                    D) charge

E) bother

45. The Christmas Eve party was a ……….. occasion, not because of the food or entertainment, but because it was the night Judy and Jeremy announced their engagement.

A) constructive                          B) sizeable

C) memorable                            D) productive

E) relevant

46. We looked after my niece last week and found her well-behaved, lively and intelligent. We have offered to look after her any time as it is a/an ………. having her around.

A) pleasure                                B) affection

C) likeness                                 D) conspiracy

E) hindrance

47. I'm sorry Sir, but the sign clearly states that the gates are locked at……….. 6 p.m. I know it is only two minutes past, but they are locked automatically and the alarm is set, so I can't let you out.

A) roughly                                  B) precisely

C) specially                                D) spitefully

E) utterly

48. It was lovely to see the ……….. in the children's eyes as they watched the sharks swim around in the aquarium.

A) tolerance                               B) apathy

C) confusion                             D) rehearsal

E) amazement

49. Border collie dogs can be bred as pets, but they are more commonly used as sheep dogs. They are known for their good temperament and ………… making them ideal farm dogs.

A) disregard                               B) obedience

C) description                            D) movement

E) constitution

50. The new library contains some special features and equipment, such as a ramp for wheelchairs and special typewriters and books for the blind, for the use of people with ……….. .

A) complexions                         B) irritations

C) disabilities                             D) situations

E) properties

51. The carpet fitters are coming to lay the carpet today, which should bring the project to ………… so we will be ready to open the new function room on Monday.

A) reliance                                 B) termination

C) completion                            D) preservation

E) guidance

52. The police made the false ……….. that he had been killed by an enemy and not by a friend.

A) prediction                              B) forecast

C) documentary                         D) assumption

E) summary

53. One of the problems the European Commission has faced is ……….. . Projects have been given to friends and relations of committee members.

A) suspicion                               B) corruption

C) occurrence                                D) transmission

E) redundancy

54. She embarrassed him in front of everyone ……….. . It is an example of how spiteful she is.   

A) intentionally                          B) tactfully

C) reluctantly                             D) relatively

E) coincidentally

55. The debate on the radio programme was about whether underwear advertisements should be allowed in public places or whether such types of posters are ………. .

A) worthy                                  B) immoral

C) truthful                                  D) impressed

E) imaginary

56. The villagers had to move quickly before the rebels returned and they didn't even have time to give their dead relatives a proper ……….. .

A) termination                            B) concern

C) engagement                           D) poverty

E) burial

57. In the 1930s, people were so ……….. of the dangers of asbestos that they even used it on domestic ironing boards.

A) hasty                                     B) regardless

C) ignorant                                 D) mindful

E) arrogant

58. To give these tablets to children, you should ……….. them in a little milk or water, or they'll find them difficult to swallow.

A) dissolve                                 B) magnify

C) shake                                    D) inject

E) reduce

 

TEST YOURSELF 2

1. According to accounts, when Moses led his people out of slavery, the sea ……….. parted to let them pass.

A) miraculously                          B) exceptionally

C) productively                              D) indifferently

E) naturally

2. Because of the high price of cigarettes in the UK, the customs are always on the look-out for lorry drivers trying to ……….. them into the country without declaring them.

A) kidnap                                   B) smuggle

C) assassinate                                 D) conceal

E) slide

3. The English expression "o'clock" is a ……….. of the phrase 'of the clock'.

A) controversy                           B) prediction

C) underestimate                            D) relative

E) contraction

4. Susan moved to the city centre because she was ……… with living in a small village, but soon she began to realise that rural life has many advantages.

A) adequate                                B) inconsistent

C) discontented                              D) proportionate

E) integrated

5. Clive has ……….. been in trouble at school and, unless he changes his behaviour, he will be expelled from the school.

A) irresistibly                             B) moderately

C) extravagantly                            D) persistently

E) indifferently

6. If your monthly ……….. is greater than your income on a regular basis, then you will most definitely end up in debt.

A) finance                                  B) wage

C) allowance                              D) earning

E) expenditure

7. John is a terrible driver. Sometimes he ……….. that he is going to turn left and then turns right.

A) predicts                                 B) directs

C) confirms                                    D) exposes

E) indicates

8. The school bullies ……….. Robert that if he told the teacher, they would beat him up.

A) weakened                              B) threatened

C) flattered                                     D) soothed

E) questioned

9. Whatever the social secretary suggested as a way of celebrating the club's 10th anniversary, the members seemed ……….. to it. Nothing seemed to excite them very much.

A) indifferent                             B) considerate

C) enthusiastic                          D) inclined

E) tactless

10. According to the myth, the Greek army entered Troy ……… in a wooden horse so that they wouldn't be seen by the enemy.

A) falsified                                 B) entailed

C) formulated                            D) concealed

E) magnified

11.The campaign organiser collected one hundred ……….. of local residents who were against the resurfacing of their cobbled street.

A) monologues                           B) operations

C) signatures                                  D) identities

E) personalities

12. Their neighbours have promised to erect a higher fence, but their dog has already escaped and attacked the Smith's sheep twice. Their opinion is that the dog is a ………. and should be sold.

A) distraction                              B) miser

C) coward                                      D) menace

E) thief

13. Mary is waiting for a hip operation, but at the moment she cannot get on and off the bus without ……… .

A) tolerance                                B) hindrance

C) acceptance                             D) assistance

E) performance

14. The immense area and sparse population in Australia still hinder ………. in some interior areas.

A) depletion                               B) agreement

C) procession                             D) adjustment

E) development

15. Have you ……….. all the members about the change of date for the meeting?

A) modified                               B) notified

C) specialised                                 D) criticized

E) transferred

16. In with my sister's Christmas card, I have ………. a cheque so that she can buy the children some presents.

A) enclosed                                B) enveloped

C) packaged                                   D) sorted

E) instructed

17. A triangular ……….. on a dress label means that the item should not be bleached.

A) symbol                                  B) statue

C) portrait                                      D) emblem

E) pattern

18. A boy's voice becomes lower when he reaches ………. and this usually happens all of a sudden, sometimes even overnight.

A) childhood                              B) kinship

C) adolescence                               D) infancy

E) flexibility

19. Under the law in China, it is only ………. for most families to have one child.

A) insistent                                 B) inclusive

C) descriptive                             D) permissible

E) obsessive

20. My mother ………. my colleague's voice for mine and started to chat to her about her day. Of course, she felt a bit embarrassed when she realised she was talking to a complete stranger.

A) mistook                                 B) misjudged

C) misheard                                D) misspent

E) misinterpreted

21. Fulham Football Club have little chance of beating Liverpool in the Football Association Cup, but Trevor is confident his team can win. This is typical of his outlook, which is always ……….. .

A) inventive                               B) genuine

C) exclusive                                   D) optimistic

E) justifiable

22. This train will terminate at Birmingham due to a mechanical failure. A coach will be waiting for you outside the station to take you to your final ………. .

A) inclination                             B) indication

C) destination                            D) objection

E) completion

23. The word 'slavery' ……….. pictures of Black Africans in America or slaves in ancient Greece or Rome, but forced labour still occurs today in several places around the world.

A) recollects                               B) evokes

C) invents                                      D) selects

E) demonstrates

24. The victim's family are offering 160,000 pounds for information which leads to the ……… of the murderer.

A) approval                                B) conviction

C) resistance                             D) realism

E) expectancy

25. The Millennium Dome in London is not a theme park like Disney World as most of the exhibits are ……….. and are designed to be educational.

A) instructive                             B) efficient

C) desirable                                D) tolerant

E) strict

26.The residents of that street were ……….. because of the floods and are now being looked after in a local community centre.

A) excavated                              B) emigrated

C) elevated                                 D) evacuated

E) emptied

 

27. The seventy-year-old pensioner ………. defended himself against the robber and was praised for his bravery.

A) tolerantly                               B) gradually

C) relatively                              D) collectively

E) fearlessly

28. The ……….. at the shopping centre had broken down, so we had to climb up it.

A) staircase                                B) ladder

C) elevator                                 D) platform

E) escalator

29. I have been doing my algebra homework on my computer all day and although I haven't done anything ……….. demanding, I'm exhausted.

A) physically                             B) mentally

C) verbally                                 D) orally

E) sensibly

30. He comes from a very wealthy family who made their ………. from textile manufacturing.

A) dependency                          B) heirloom

C) fortune                                  D) inheritance

E) estimation

31. As support for his proposal was practically ………. he quickly abandoned the idea.

A) inaccurate                             B) non-existent

C) uneventful                             D) sensitive

E) distracting

32. The security code, which is written on every piece of equipment, is ………. unless it is placed under ultraviolet light.

A) invisible                                B) disobedient

C) odourless                               D) insufficient

E) tasteless

33. If you live within a ten-mile radius of our store, we can ………. your items free of charge.

A) deceive                                  B) inherit

C) deliver                                   D) interfere

E) progress

34. Under the rules of tennis, the ball can ……….. once inside the opponents half before being hit, but not twice.

A) bounce                                  B) slam

C) float                                     D) throw

E) jump

35. All English stamps depict a/an ……… of the current Queen or King, either as the centrepiece or in one corner.

A) likelihood                              B) likeness

C) copy                                     D) echo

E) reflection

36. This has been true since the ………. of stamps in 1840.

A) connection                            B) construction

C) introduction                           D) elimination

E) exhibition

37. When archaeologists ………. the site where they believed the ancient city of Troy was located, they not only found evidence of the Trojan city, but also of even older cities.

A) buried                                    B) raked

C) excavated                                  D) cultivated

E) executed

38. At first the police thought the robber was acting alone, but later they discovered that he had a/an ……… .

A) accomplice                            B) apprentice

C) traitor                                    D) hijacker

E) co-pilot

39. Some people believe that social acceptance of heavy drinking in British and American universities may ……….. alcoholism.

A) mock                                     B) eliminate

C) subside                                  D) promote

E) conflict

40. The soldiers were ……….. to their barracks in case they were urgently required.

A) resigned                                 B) confined

C) dedicated                               D) controlled

E) packaged

41. At less than 4 percent, unemployment iri Switzerland is only ……….. compared to 20 to 30 percent in other countries.

A) creditable                               B) distinctive

C) considerable                          D) improbable

E) negligible

42. He is sure that he met me at the national conference, which I attended indeed, but I have no ……….. of ever meeting him.

A) consciousness                       B) mentality

C) approval                                    D) vitality

E) recollection

43. The public service announcements being shown at the moment show what happens to a person's brain when he or she takes drugs and are meant as a/an ……….. to anyone considering experimenting with drugs.

A) obligation                              B) deterrent

C) incentive                                   D) density

E) offence

44. Some workers in the Czech Republic have ……….. well to working within a free enterprise economy, while others worked better under a more controlled regime.

A) produced                               B) vanished

C) adapted                                 D) prevented

E) detected

45. Betty thinks her four-inch high platform soled shoes are wonderful, but I think they are ……….. . How can she even stand in them?

A) ridiculous                              B) preserved

C) insulting                                D) significant

E) profound

46. Can I make a/an …..? Why don't you hire a car for the week when your brother is coming to stay? It might be easier than going everywhere by coach or train.

A) suggestion                             B) instinct

C) conclusion                                 D) transportation

E) commuter

47. His criticism was ……….. . Not only did he tell me which areas of the play needed improvement, but he also gave me tips on how to improve it.

A) negligible                               B) ambitious

C) mutual                                      D) constructive

E) explicable

48. In my opinion, steak cooked in red wine, onions, mushrooms and tomatoes makes a very ………. meal. If I see 'Steak Chasseur" on a menu, I always order it.

A) touchy                                   B) skilled

C) variable                                     D) tasty

E) nasty

49. A builder by trade, Harold ……… his own vegetables in his garden and often gives us bundles of green beans or leeks.

A) ploughs                                 B) raises

C) grows                                    D) buries

E) farms

50. We thought Simon would drop out of art school, especially because of his financial problems, but we ……….. his determination to succeed.

A) underlined                             B) understated

C) undertook                                  D) underwent

E) underestimated

52. My uncle is ……… blind. He can see faint outlines of objects but cannot see well enough to read even with glasses.

A) partially                                 B) entirely

C) collectively                                D) initially

E) systematically

53. Maria decided to care for her ……….. ill sister at home, where she would die in peace surrounded by her family.

A) hastily                                   B) slightly

C) terminally                                  D) relatively

E) anxiously

54. The ……… in Barry has been amazing since he has been reading that book on positive thinking. He has changed from a pessimistic, miserable man into a cheerful, lively character.

A) restoration                             B) transportation

C) conclusion                                 D) transformation

E) reformation

55. The theory that Stonehenge, a circular group of massive stones erected over three millennia ago, was built as a temple has never been actually ………. .

A) activated                                B) enforced

C) measured                               D) assumed

E) proved

56. The police have searched the area ……….. but they haven't found the weapon used in the murder.

A) stiffly                                    B) thoroughly

C) weakly                                      D) sternly

E) magnificently

57. I don't think your parents should take it for ……….. that you will look after your younger sister and their house while they are on holiday.

A) undecided                             B) granted

C) assumed                                    D) informed


E) treated

58. The Blue Mosque in Istanbul has been in ………. use since its completion in 1616.

A) simultaneous                         B) prestigious

C) continuous                               D) indelible

E) impenetrable

59. We have had the walls of our house insulated in an effort to …….. our heating costs.

A) hinder                                   B) decline

C) terminate                                   D) incline

E) reduce

60. In hot weather, our bodies release water, as ……….. to be evaporated so that our bodies cool down.

A) recurrence                             B) perspiration

C) conservation                              D) dampness

E)endurance

61. The George Washington Bridge in the USA ……….. New York with New Jersey over the Hudson River.

A) transports                              B) seals

C) detects                                  D) connects

E) clashes

 

1. The management has launched a/an ……… to find out what caused the fire in the factory.

A) compensation                        B) temptation

C) investigation                              D) devotion

E) meditation

2. Although the official language of Quebec is French, seventy percent of the ………. who settled there from other countries cannot speak any French at all.

A) immigrants                            B) speculators

C) gamblers                                    D) prisoners

E) predators

3. The dictator's refusal to grant his citizens civil rights led to his inevitable

A) prediction                              B) downfall

C) disappearance                          D) ability

E) complexity

4. Each item of jewellery she produces is ………. — no two designs are alike.

A) single                                    B) floral

C) instant                                      D) unique

E) lonely

5. When the children were rescued from the lifeboat, they were ……….. and weak but still alive.

A) non-existent                          B) extravagant

C) undernourished                         D) dishonourable

E) insufficient

6. There was no clear winner in the election, so the political parties will have to work in ………. towards a coalition.

A) cooperation                           B) disconnection

C) examination                             D) irrelevance

E) mismanagement 

7. Despite all the ………. he encountered, he managed to establish his new company.

A) obstacles                               B) merits

C) trenches                                     D) blockages

E) advantages

8. A Dublin property developer plans to make a big ……… in the Millennium Dome, transforming it into a business park for technological companies.

A) sensitivity                              B) investment

C) measurement                             D) participation

E) forecast

9. The referee ……… the boxer for kicking his opponent, which is not allowed under the rules.

A) miscalculated                        B) unfolded

C) disqualified                               D) insisted

E) analysed

10. If you feel exhausted after a late night, just place a sprig of rosemary in boiling water, cool it and drink it. This will …….. you.

A) hover                                     B) reincarnate

C) evaporate                                  D) revive

E) bubble

11. A large section of the town was completely destroyed by the powerful earthquake and the ……….. of the debris and rubble cost the government a fortune.

A) removal                                 B) dumping

C) proposal                                    D) approval

E) unloading

12. As human resources manager for the company, she is responsible for the ……….. of all new employees.

A) agreement                             B) enlightenment

C) disarmament                              D) enrichment

E) recruitment

13. According to an ancient ……….. in Turkey, horsehair is supposed to bring luck, and for this reason, it is often hung in people's homes.

A) trust                                      B) virtue

C) value                                         D) truth

E) belief

14. The area around the northern coasts of the Aegean Sea was first called Thrace by the ancient Greeks, who referred to a/an ……….. region stretching northwards indefinitely.

A) improbable                            B) persistent

C) indistinct                                D) credible

E) precise

15. After his father had won £100 from a bet, Freddie thought it was a/an ……… moment to ask him for the £5 he needed to buy a toy gun.

A) likely                                     B) opportune

C) unfortunate                               D) miraculous

E) solitary

16. So that Margaret's progress at school wouldn't be ………. by her recurring illness, her mother hired her a private tutor.

A) exploited                               B) monitored

C) delivered                               D) hindered

E) implied

17. It is best to warn the customers beforehand that if they fail to turn up for their appointment, they will be ……… a cancellation fee.

A) nominated                             B) offended

C) opposed                                    D) charged

E) measured

18. Willa Gather was a fourth generation American, but she was ………. to write her novels by the way European immigrants and their children adapted to rugged life in western America.

A) inspired                                 B) competed

C) announced                                D) united

E) demonstrated

19. The Romans are noted for having built straight roads. They calculated the shortest ………. between two settlements and followed that route.

A) landscape                              B) arrival

C) instruction                                 D) distance

E) departure

20. Martin has only just qualified as a chef at college, but he has ten years' of cooking in kitchens all around the world.

A) meditation                             B) devotion

C) experience                             D) reliability

E) ability

21. The lock on our front door broke yesterday and it was too late to call a locksmith, so we had to sleep with only a table pushed against the door. I didn't sleep well as I felt very ……… .

A) offensive                               B) insecure

C) obscure                                     D) assured

E) dependable

22. There are many superstitions based on the power of a full moon and recent scientific study has indicated that the force of the moon may have a psychological ……… on humans.

A) conclusion                             B) effect

C) ending                                       D) proportion

E) deficit

23. We bought four ……….. garden chairs, which can be neatly stored away and will be ideal for picnics.

A) bulky                                     B) useless

C) collapsible                             D) destructive

E) irrelevant

24. The economies of several South American nations are almost ………. dependent on the price of commodities on the world market.

A) naturally                                B) impressively

C) immensely                             D) entirely

E) mercifully

25. Unfortunately, my birthday this year ……… with my company's annual conference, so I won't be able to take the day off.

A) collides                                  B) insults

C) infects                                  D) adjoins

E) coincides

26. It is hoped that the lengthy negotiations between the opposite sides in the Northern Ireland conflict will…….. bring about a lasting peace in the province.

A) eventually                             B) shamefully

C) excusably                              D) courteously

E) excitedly

27. There is a current crisis within the National Health Service and additional nurses and doctors are needed ……… .

A) purely                                    B) urgently

C) practically                              D) allegedly

E) logically

28. The new procedure introduced by the management has some ……… . For example, it is time-consuming, has created more paperwork and is also quite confusing.

A) likeness                                 B) merits

C) drawbacks                            D) harm

E) disciplines

29. As soon as the sheriff heard about the bank robbery, he …….. his horse and set off in pursuit of the villains.

A) discovered                             B) escaped

C) established                             D) boarded

E) mounted

30. The Siamese twins were separated shortly after birth. This operation gave the stronger twin a chance of …………. .

A) protection                              B) flexibility

C) hindrance                              D) survival

E) preservation

31. You should ……… all the soap off the car after you have washed it as it can harm the paint work.

A) scrub                                     B) moisten

C) paste                                      D) rinse

E) drive

32. Anhui is one of the smallest of China's twenty-one provinces, but its population ………. that of Spain.

A) undermines                           B) estimates

C) overtakes                              D) forecasts

E) outnumbers

33. In 1992, Hurricane Andrew caused considerable ……….. in southern Florida, USA, leaving a quarter of a million people homeless.

A) devastation                            B) irritation

C) revolution                             D) sensation

E) condemnation

34. Megan was so ……….. of her daughter for being the first person in her family's history to graduate from university.

A) proud                                    B) scared

C) indifferent                            D) hasty

E) aware

35. Russia launched a/an ……… of Afghanistan in 1979 and engaged itself in a war there for almost ten years.

A) destruction                            B) invasion

C) disarmament                          D) strategy

E) abundance

36. They had over 180 minutes of film which they could use for the twenty-minute documentary. It was Charles's job to ………. the film down to the required length.

A) narrate                                   B) practise

C) copy                                          D) instruct

E) edit

37. He gave up his job as a night watchman as he couldn't bear the ………. which resulted from standing guard all through the night.

A) impression                             B) endurance

C) boredom                                D) enthusiasm

E) reflection

38. A simple tool kit is a/an ……….. thing to keep at home as it allows one to carry out small repairs.

A) tasteless                                 B) complicated

C) spiteful                                 D) useful

E) pointless

39. Be careful that you don't………. over. One of your shoelaces is undone.

A) bounce                                  B) trip

C) leap                                      D) slide

E) spin

40. Malcolm has lived most of his life in Worcester. In 1975 he lived in Hereford ……… while working there, but within a few months, he had moved back to his home town.

A) reasonably                            B) lately

C) thankfully                                 D) cautiously

E) briefly

41. Many of the roads in England have cameras in order to catch motorists who ………. the speed limit.

A) maintain                                B) conceal

C) overflow                                D) restrict

E) exceed

42. I received a letter this morning which ……… that my application for a Canadian work permit has been accepted.

A) confirms                                B) validates

C) assumes                                 D) carries

E) departs

43. I was hoping to get a/an ………. at work after my appraisal, but I haven't heard anything yet.

A) elevation                               B) presentation

C) promotion                             D) resignation

E) assignment

44. After the Second World War, as part of the town's modernisation, the old town walls were ………. .

A) evacuated                              B) demolished

C) ascended                                               D) burgled

E) polished

45. The 17th-century manor is believed by some local residents to be ……… by the ghost of the old mistress of the house, who was killed by a burglar in 1682.

A) occupied                               B) distilled

C) haunted                                     D) navigated

E) tidied

46. Martin was ……….. about being offered the position of manager of the entire factory. The news meant that he would be able to buy his own house, pay for his son to attend a good school and save for the future.

A) anxious                                 B) measurable

C) comparable                          D) overjoyed

E) hesitant

47. In the lottery at work, Frank won a luxury trip to New York for himself and his wife. They are looking forward to flying across the Atlantic in ……… seats.

A) second-hand                         B) overripe

C) brand-new                             D) first-class

E) over-aged

48. They are also looking forward to ………. by the swimming pool or in the sauna.

A) debating                                B) impressing

C) dispatching                            D) detaining

E) relaxing

49. Hiking for pleasure is one of the least ………. ways to become physically fit because you don't have to buy anything special to do it.

A) critical                                   B) moderate

C) costly                                     D) hardy

E) thrifty            

50. My father has to attend the annual American Petroleum Institute's Conference every year. It is not his choice, but simply a/an ………. of his job.

A) requirement                           B) hazard

C) notice                                    D) impulse

E) account

51. The two partners came to an agreement ……… about how to divide the assets of their business. They were both happy with the arrangements.

A) anxiously                              B) amicably

C) artistically                              D) punctually

E) productively

52. In 1620, approximately 100 pilgrims ………. 66 days exposed to icy winds on a very crowded boat without any sanitation to reach America.

A) obstructed                             B) obsessed

C) endured                                 D) replied

E) submerged

53. ………. of mineral resources is important as they are non-renewable, which means they will run out some day.

A) Application                           B) Suggestion

C) Flexibility                              D) Conservation

E) Environment

54. Pot Pourri is the name given to a mixture of perfumed petals and leaves which is used to add ……….. to a room.

A) prominence                           B) fancy

C) scenery                                  D) tone

E) fragrance

55. The director said that we needed to review the number of engineers employed by the   company. I think his statement was ……… . Is he implying that we have too many engineers or too few?

A) ambiguous                             B) immoral

C) valueless                                D) charitable

E) offensive

56. Chris and Nigel Smith have a/an ………. bank account. Both of them can take money out of their account and write cheques.

A) connected                              B) joint

C) sealed                                    D) sectioned

E) engaged

57. I told my employer well………. that I had found another job.

A) in sequence                           B) in advance

C) in debt                                   D) in a hurry

E) in danger

58. I went to the garden centre to choose some roses, but there was such a/an ……….. on display that I thought I had better find out which ones would be most suited to my garden.

A) jumble                                   B) majority

C) alteration                               D) variety

E) mixture

59. While brick-making in England was once done ……… the process in now fully automated and machines produce millions of bricks per week.

A) manually                               B) adequately

C) rationally                               D) gradually

E) agreeably

60. New York City is a place of stark contrast. There are areas of great poverty and an estimated one million residents live only with the help of government welfare payments. On the other hand, some of America's most ……… families live in downtown Manhattan.

A) conservative                          B) liberal

C) affluent                                 D) secular

E) gifted

 

Ex. 1 (pg.4)

1.transpacific 2.multi-talented 3.presuppose 4.monolingual 5.interactive 6.contradict 7.anti-perspirant 8.coincidence 9.cooperation 10.forecast 11.postscript 12.anti-climax 13.monotonous 14. semi-automatic 15.forebear 16.uproot 17.semi-conscious 18.upstream 19.prearrange 20.interstate 21.superstar 22.contravene 23.mid-summer 24.transplant 25.self-centred 26.mid-field 27.self-appointed 28.super-tanker 29.multi-millionaire 30.post-graduate

Ex. 2 (pg.7)

1.censorship 2.premiership 3.livelihood 4.stardom 5.chairmanship 6.serfdom 7.companionship 8.likelihood 9.hardship 10.statesmanship 11.boredom 12.craftsmanship 13.relationship 14.officialdom 15.courtship 16.wisdom 17.leadership 18.brotherhood 19.freedom 20.ownership

Ex. 3 (pg.7)

1.adviser (advisor) 2.librarian 3.psychologist 4.activist 5.puppeteer 6.designer 7.auctioneer 8.solicitor 9.machinist 10.therapist 11.diver 12.officer 13.statistician 14.miner 15.mountaineer 16.politician 17.musician 18.vocalist 19.optician 20.agitator

Ex. 4 (pg.8)

1.breadth 2.growth 3.gift 4.1ength 5.depth 6.heat 7.drought 8.warmth 9.width 10.health

11.frost 12.youth 13.birth 14.theft 15.content 16.sight 17.height 18.thought 19.deceit 20.truth

Ex. 5 (pg.8)

1.diversion 2.embarrassment 3.insurance 4.excitement 5.suppression 6.resistance 7.interruption 8.indication 9.inference 10.investment 11.existence  12.imagination 13.harassment 14.resemblance 15.grievance 16.abandonment 17.rebellion 18.judgement 19.declaration 20.involvement 21.stimulation 22.emission 23.accommodatiori 24.maintenance 25.objection 26.obsession 27.argument 28.achievement 29.payment 30.cancellation 31.repetition 32.omission 33.interference 34.accumulation 35.reflection 36.annoyance 37.celebration 38.irritation 39.disappointment 40.conclusion

Ex. 6 (pg.9)

1.sponsorship 2.attachment 3.occupation/occupant/occupier/occupancy 4.robbery/robber 5.pleasure 6.drainage 7.procedure 8.compatibility 9.seizure 10.exhibition 11.nationalism/nationalist/nationaliry 12.competitor/competition 13.terrorist/terrorism 14.sufferer/suffering 15.dependant/dependency 16.thickness 17.criticism 18.equipment 19.boundary 20.idleness 21.fulfilment 22.fundamentalist/fundamentalism 23.carriage 24.pursuit 25.industrialism/industrialist/industrialisation 26.wilderness 27.cordiality 28.acceleration/accelerator 29.removal 30.hopelessness 31.description 32.efficiency 33.constraint 34.adequacy 35.realiry/realist/realism 36.rehearsal 37.baker/bakery 38.approval 39.tendency 40.density 41.prejudice 42.supposition 43.consumer/consumption 44.visibility 45.leakage 46.likeness 47.postponement 48.performer/performance 49.friendship 50.recurrence

Ex. 7 (pg.10)

1.E     2.B      3.A   4.A    5.D     6.C      7.D     8.E    9.C    10.A    11.B    12.C    13.D    14.E    15.C 16.D   17.B   18.C   19.A 20.E  21.E  22.D  23.B 24.C    25.C     26.A   27.C   28.B   29.E   30.A

Ex. 8 (pg.15)

1.noticeable 2.reversible 3.transferable 4.forgettable 5.breakable 6.audible

7.collapsible 8.resistible 9.replaceable  10.conceivable  11.controllable  12.washable

13.arguable  14.accessible  15.portable

Ex. 9 (pg.16)

1.shady 2.moody 3.filthy 4.bossy 5.chilly 6.stringy 7.lumpy 8-tasty 9.scary 10.juicy 11.rusty 12.faulty 13. witty 14.curly 15.creamy

Ex. 10 (pg.17)

1.appreciative 2.permissible/perrnissive 3.resistible/resistant 4.favourable/favourite 5.glamorous 6.manageable 7.competitive 8.incidental 9.1engthy 10.comprehensible

11.profitable 12.grievous 13.possessive 14.regrettable 15.chaotic 16.offensive 17.obsessive 18.successive/successful 19.hysterical 20.initial 21.satisfactory/satisfying 22.recurrent 23.cautionary/cautious 24.observant/observable 25.bureaucratic 26.urgent 27.sensible/sensitive/senseless 28.harmonious 29.bearable 30.slippery

Ex. 11 (pg.17)

1.hasty 2.greedy 3.muddy 4.wealthy 5.shiny 6.risky 7.sandy 8.cowardly 9.bouncy 10.lovely 11.greasy 12.crunchy 13.salty 14.weekly 15.brotberly 16.1ively 17.angry 18.costly 19.foggy 20.airy

Ex. 12 (pg. 18)

1.insolvent 2.illiterate 3.impartial 4.incompetent 5.imperfect 6.inadequate 7.irrelevant 8.indistinct 9.irreversible  10.irresistible  11.indestructible  12.insensitive 13.illegible  14.immeasurable  15.immodest 16.imprecise  17.inconvenient  18.impure 19.illegitimate 20.impenetrable

Ex. 13 (pg.19)

1.worthy/unworthy 2.conclusive/inconclusive 3.desirable/undesirable 4.wise/unwise

5.coherent/incoherent 6.disputable/indisputable 7.avoidable/unavoidable

8.productive/unproductive 9.operable/inoperable  10.considerate/inconsiderate

Ex. 14 (pg.19)

1.unproductive 2.indisputable 3.unwise 4.unworthy 5.unavoidable   6.undesirable 7.inconclusive 8.inoperable 9.incoherent  10.inconsiderate

Ex. 15 (pg.20)

1.respectful 2.thankful/thankless 3.ceaseless 4.powerful/powerless 5.jobless 6.pitiful/pitiless 7.limitless 8.helpful/helpless 9.joyful  10.stainless  11.peaceful 12.plentiful  13.scornful  14.colourful/colourless  15.hopeful/hopeless  16.aimless 17.thoughtful/thoughtless  18.tast.eful/tasteless  19.1awful/lawless 20.painful/painless

Ex. 16 (pg.21)

1 .offensive/inoffensive 2.dispensable/indispensable 3.honourable/dishonourable 4.violent/non-violent 5.courteous/discourteous 6.official/unofficial 7.decisive/indecisive 8.advantageous/disadvantageous 9.accustomed/unaccustomed 10.obedient/disobedient                   11. willing/unwilling 12.eventful/uneventful

15.useful/useless  14.alcoholic/non-alcoholic  15.existent/non-existent 16.adequate/inadequate

Ex. 17 (pg.21)

1.non-alcoholic  2.inadequate 3.uneventful 4.unwilling 5.non-existent 6.inoffensive 7.discourteous  8.non-violent 9.indispensable  10.dishonourable  11.disobedient 12.disadvantageous  13.indecisive  14.unaccustomed  15.useless  16.unofficial

Ex. 18 (pg.22)

1.discharge 2.unbalance 3.undo 4.disclose 5.disembark 6.unveil 7.dislocate 8.dismount 9.unwind  10.displace  11.disqualify  12.unplug  13.disinfect 14.disapprove  15.disappoint  16.unfasten

 

Ex. 19 (pg.22)

1.unfasten 2.undo 3.unplugs 4.disapprove 5.disinfected  6.discharge 7.disappointed 8.unbalanced 9.disqualified  10.unwinds   11.unveiled 12.displaced  13.disembarked 14.dislocated  15.dismounted  16.disclosed

Ex. 20 (pg.23)

1.misspend   2.misprint    3.disillusion   4.misbehave 5.disintegrate 6.mistreat 7.misfortune 8.dissatisfied 9.misinform  10.dissolve  11.dissimilar 12.misjudge 13.discolour  14.mislead  15.disloyal 16.misspell

Ex. 21 (pg.23)

1.misled   2.misinformed 3-misspent 4.disintegrated 5.discoloured 6.misspells

7.misjudged 8.dissatisfied 9.disloyal  10.mistreating 11.disillusioned  12.dissimilar

13.dissolve 14.misbehave  15.misfortune  16.misprinted

Ex. 22 (pg.25)

1.analyse 2.socialise 3.standardise   4.signify 5.colonise 6.encase 7.1oosen 8.soften 9.familiarise  1O.sweeten  11.enjoy  12.fabricate  13.vaporise  14.straighten   15.sharpen 16.encircle  17.tranquillise  18.hospitalise  19.worsen 20.economise 21.lessen 22.invalidate 23.falsify 24.terrorise 25.horrify 26.decorate 27.entail 28.ripen 29.identify 30.formulate

Ex. 23 (pg.25)

1.worsen 2.decorating 3.economise 4.formulated 5.identify 6.analysed 7.colonised 8.sweetened 9.enclosed  10.straightened  11.ripen  12.standardise  13.fabricated 14.vaporised  15.invalidate  16.encased  17.enjoyed  18.entails  19.falsified  20.horrified 21.loosened 22.lessens 23.sharpened 24.terrorising 25.socialise  26.signifies 27.hospitalised 28.familiarise 29.tranquillised 30.softens

Ex. 24 (pg.27)

1.offensive/offensively 2.sensitive/sensitively, sensible/sensibly 3.sufficient/sufficiently 4.tactful/tactfully 5.extensive/extensively 6.considerable/considerably, considerate/considerately 7.sarcastic/sarcastically 8.basic/basically 9.enviable/enviably, envious/enviously 10-elegant/elegantly 11.excessive/excessively 12.anxious/anxiously

15.specific/specifically 14. relative/relatively 15.persuasive/persuasively

16. coincidental/coincidentally 17.historical/historically 18.defensive/defensively 19.hazardous/hazardously 20.expensive/expensively

Ex. 25 (pg.28)

1.historical 2.hazardous 3.sufficiently 4.sensitive 5.Coincidentally 6.extensively 7.tactful 8.defensively 9.persuasively 10.specifically 11.anxiously 12.considerable 13.basic 14.enviable 15.excessively 16.offensive 17.expensive 18.relatively 19.elegant 20.sarcastically

Word Formation 1

1.senseless 2.unpleasant 3.rigidity 4.disturbance 5.fluency 6.mournfully 7.wreckage 8.unfortunately 9.factual 10.combination 11.bearable 12.humidity 13.brilliance 14.bloodiest 15.Prevention 16.disability 17.discontented 18.non-refundable 19.failure 20.brutality

Word Formation 2

1.unacceptable 2.minority 3.majority 4.birth 5.necessity 6.indecisive 7.involuntarily 8.persistence 9.worsen 10.shortage 11.exclusively 12.miraculously 13-dangerous 14.argument 15.confinement 16.heat 17.choices 18.uncooperative 19.restoration 20.comparison

Word Formation 3

1.a) realist b) realisation c) reality   2.a) imaginary b) imagination c) Unimaginable   3.a) hesitation b) hesitantly c) hesitant   4.a) disabled b) ably c) abilities   5.a) unproductive b)  product c) production   6.a) instability b) stabilises c) unstable   7.a) activated b) actively c) activities   8.a) indifference b) differently c) different   9.a) destruction b) indestructible c) destructive     10.a) professionalism b) professional c) unprofessional   11.a) argument • b) argumentative c) arguably   12.a) impatience b) impatiently c) patience   13.a) responsibly b) responsibility c) irresponsible   14.a) predictable b) unpredictable c) predictions   15.a) information b) informative c) misinformed   16.a) decorative b) decorators c) decorations    17.a) encourage b) courageously c) encouragement   18.a) enthusiast b) unenthusiastically c) enthusiasm   19.a) inseparable b) separation c) separately   20.a) excusable b) excused c) inexcusably

TEST YOURSELF 1

 1.B     2.A         3.A  4.E    5.D   6.B   7.A   8.C   9.D   10.D 11.A           12.C   13.B        14.D    15.C

16.E   17.D         18.E  19.B 20.A 21.C 22.B 23.D 24.B 25.A 26.D           27.C   28.A        29.C    30.C

31.D  32.A         33.E  34.D 35.B 36.C 37.E  38.B 39.A 40.D 41.E           42.D  43.B         44.A    45.A

46.B   47.C         48.A 49.B 50.E  51.B 52.C 53.C 54.D 55.B  56.A           57.B   58.E        59.C    60.A

TEST YOURSELF 2

1.A         2.B             3.E     4.C  5.D   6.E    7.E    8.B   9.A   10.D 11.C 12.D       13.D    14.E   15.B

16.A         17.A           18.C   19.D        20.A 21.D 22.C 23.B 24.B  25.A 26.D       27.E     28.E     29.A   30.C

31.B 32.A 33.C   34.A         35.B 36.C  37.C 38.A 39.D 40.B 41.E  42.E  43.B       44.C   45.A

46.A         47.D           48.D  49.C         50.E  51.A 52.C 53.D 54.E  55.B 56.B       57.C    58.E     59.B   60.D

TEST YOURSELF 3

1.C 2.A   3.B     4.D     5.C         6.A   7.A   8.B   9.C    10.D 11.A 12.E  13.E  14.C          15.B

16.D         17.D                   18.A   19.D  20.C       21.B  22.B 23.C 24.D  25.E  26.A          27.B    28.C    29.E     30.D

31.D         32.E                    33.A   34.A  35.B       36.E  37.C 38.D 39.B  40.E  41.E          42.A    43.C    44.B    45.C

46.D         47.D                   48.E  49.C  50.A         51.B  52.C 53.D 54.E  55.A 56.B          57.B    58.D    59.A    60.C

 

EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS       ANSWER KEY

1.B     2.D      3.C      4.A      5.D     6.D      7.C        8.D     9. E     10.C    11.A    12.E     13.E       14.C    15.B    16.C    17.D   18.A    19.C    20.A    21.C    22.E    23.B    24.A   25.A

 

 

Author: Erdem OVAT

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