Preffixes Suffixes

PREFIXES1. 

NEGATION   : uncomfortable, discomfort   

2.  DIRECTION  : transatlantic, departure

3.  TIME              : post-war, antecedent

4.  PLACE           : subway, uphill

5.  NUMBER       : biennial, triangle

6.  DEGREE        : hypertension, ultraviolet

Aşağıda, yaygın olarak kullanılan öneklerin bir listesi ve anlamlan verilmiştir. Bu listeyi dikkatle inceleyiniz. Öneklerin anlamlarını bilmeniz, böyle bir sözcükle karşılaştığınızda, sözcüğün anlamını bilmeseniz bile yaklaşık bir tahminde bulunmanızı sağlayacaktır

COMMON PREFIXES

PREFIX

MEANING

EXAMPLES

A-

not, without

amoral, atheist

AB-

from, away from

absent, abstain  

AD-

to, towards

advance, adverse

AMBI-

both, double, two

ambiguous, ambivalent

ANTE-

before, in front of

antedate, anteroom

ANTI-

opposed to, against

antibiotic, antifreeze

BENE-

good, well

beneficial, benevolence

BI-

two, twice

bilingual, bicycle

CENT- (CENTI-)

a hundred

centimetre, century

CIRCUM-

around

circumnavigate, circumscribe

CO-

together with

coordinate, combine

CONTRA- (COUNTER-

against

contradict, counter-claim

DIS-

opposite of, not

disagree, disorder

EN-

make into, cause to be

endanger, encourage

EX-

out, out of, from

exclaim, exclude

 

at one time, former

ex-husband, ex-president

FORE-

before, in front of

foretell, forewarn

HYPER-

to a large or

 

 

extreme degree

hypersensitive, hypertension

IN- (IL-, IM-, IR-)

in, on, into

intake, inject

IN- (IL-, IM-, IR-)

not

immoral, irrelevant

INTER-

between, among

international, intercontinental

MID-

middle

midnight, midland

MIS-

wrong, not

mislead, misunderstand

MONO-

one, single

monochrome, monotone

MULTI-

many

multi-coloured, multiply

NON-

not

nonsense, non-stop

POST-

after

post-war, postcolonial

PRE-

before

premature, pre-war

RE-

again

rewrite, regain

SELF-

one's self, alone

self-service, self-taught

SEMI-

half, midway

semi-circle, semi-detached

SUB-

under

subsoil, subway

 

lower in rank

sub-committee, substandard

SUPER-

above, over

supermarket, superstructure

 

superior to, more than

superpower, superhuman

TRANS-

across

trans-atlantic, trans-continental

 

to a changed state

transform, transfer

UN-

not, opposite of

unable, unlock

UNI-

one, the same

union, unisex

UP-

to a higher or

upgrade, upstairs

 

better state

 

 

1-2   SUFFIXES

Suffix , sonek anlamına gelir. Sözcüğün sonuna eklenerek yeni sözcükler türetir. Yapım eki olarak suffix, eklendiği sözcüğün türünü değiştirir. Örneğin "honest" sıfatı, "-y" ekinin gelmesiyle "honesty" ismini oluşturur.

A-       SOME NOUN-FORMING SUFFIXES

SUFFIX                                                            EXAMPLES

-AGE ………………………………………………………..       mileage, wreckage

-AL …………………………………………………………..       refusal, dismissal

-AN …………………………………………………………..      American, republican

-ANCE (-ENCE) …………………………………………..     avoidance, intelligence

-ANCY(-ENCY) …………………………………………..     fluency, agency

-ANT (-ENT) ……………………………………………….     recipient, deterrent

-ARD (-ART) ……………………………………………….    drunkard, braggart

-ATION ………………………………………………………     conversation, organisation

-DOM ………………………………………………………..      freedom, kingdom

-EER…………………………………………………………        engineer, pioneer

-ER (-AR, -IER) ……………………………………………     teacher, liar

-ERY …………………………………………………………      robbery, recovery

-ESS …………………………………………………………       manageress, mistress

-HOOD ………………………………………………………      childhood, neighbourhood

-ICE …………………………………………………………        prejudice, cowardice

-ION (-SION,-TION) …………………………………….     information, expansion

-ISM …………………………………………………………       criticism, socialism

-1ST ………………………………………………………….       egoist, feminist

-ITY ………………………………………………………….       probability, possibility

-MENT ………………………………………………………      agreement, disappointment

-NESS ……………………………………………………….       whiteness, eagerness

-OR …………………………………………………………..       actor, creditor

-SHIP ………………………………………………………..       friendship, kinship

-T ……………………………………………………………..       complaint, weight

-TH …………………………………………………………..       health, wealth

-URE, -ATURE …………………………………………..       pressure, signature

-Y …………………………………………………………….       honesty, delivery

 

B-       SOME ADJECTIVE-FORMING SUFFIXES

SUFFIX                                 MEANING                                    EXAMPLES

-ABLE (-IBLE) …………………..                                            showing qualities of, ………….         portable, flexible that can be

-AL …………………………………                                              having qualities of ……………..        natural, magical

-ANT (-ENT) ……………………..                                             having the character of……….         significant, dependent

-ATE (-ITE) ………………………                                             having ……………………………..         affectionate, passionate

-FUL ……………………………….                                              full of ………………………………        skilful, meaningful

-1C (-ICAL) ……………………….                                            resembling ……………………….         romantic, dramatical

-ISH ………………………………. resembling, in the manner of..       childish, snobbish

-IVE……………………………….. having a tendency towards …..       constructive, impulsive

-LESS …………………………….. without ……………………………         helpless, useless

-LY …………………………………                                              like …………………………………          cowardly, friendly

-ORY ………………………………                                              relating to ………………………..          compulsory, explanatory

-OUS ……………………………… having the qualities of, full of        famous, vigorous

-WORTHY ……………………… deserving ………………………….       trustworthy, praiseworthy

-Y ………………………………….  resembling, full of………………       gloomy, salty

Bu eklerin yanı sıra, İngilizcede yaygın olarak sıfat türeten ekler -ing ve -ed dir.

disappoint-disappointing-disappointed

annoy – annoying – annoyed

 

C-       AFFIXES OF NEGATION

İngilizcede önekler un-,  in- (il-,  im-,  ir-),  dis- ve non- ve sonek -less,  sözcüğün anlamını olumsuz yapmamızı sağlar.

in- eki, "l" ile başlayan sözcüklere eklenirken il-, "m" ve "p" ile başlayan sözcüklere eklenirken im-, "r" ile başlayan sözcüklere eklenirken ir- biçimine dönüşür.

legal — illegal                              logical — illogical

moral — immoral                        perfect — imperfect

regular —irregular                       responsible — irresponsible

Ancak, bazı istisnaların olabileceğim göz önünde bulundurmamız gerekir. Örneğin aşağıdaki sözcükler, "p, m, r" harfleriyle başladığı halde un- ekiyle olumsuz yapılırlar.

pleasant — unpleasant

manly — unmanly

real — unreal

Olumsuzluk eklerini genel olarak bütün sözcük türlerine (isim, fiil, sıfat, zarf) ekleyebiliriz.

advantage (noun) — disadvantage

obedient (adjective) — disobedient

agree (verb) — disagree

agreeably (adverb) — disagreeably

Bn/.i di in unlarda, sözcüğün türü değişince aldığı olumsuzluk eki değişebiliyor.

comfortable (adjective) — uncomfortable

comfort (noun, verb) — discomfort

satisfaction (noun) — dissatisfaction

satisfactory (adjective) — unsatisfactory

Author: Erdem OVAT

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